红蓝对抗 - 蓝队手册

  • A+
所属分类:安全闲碎

本文已发表在嘶吼RoarTalk,

 http://www.4hou.com/technology/10173.html 
最佳阅读体验版:https://stackedit.io/viewer#!url=https://raw.github.com/Zer0d0y/BTFM/master/README.md



前言

  红蓝对抗的思想最早可追溯到我国现存最早的一部兵书《孙子兵法》,孙子·谋攻篇:“知彼知己,百战不殆;”,意为如果对敌我双方的情况都能了解透彻,打多少次仗都不会失败。在信息安全领域目前大家都有一个共识:“未知攻,焉知防”,攻防对抗本身是一个持续的过程,在具体的对抗中,对对手了解越多就会占据主导地位。

  红蓝对抗的主要目的在于,提高公司安全成熟度及其检测和响应攻击的能力。

  Red Teams attack, and Blue Teams defend, but the primary goal is shared between them: improve the security posture of the organization.

0. ) 准备工作

1 ) 组织结构图 
2 ) 全网拓扑图 
3 ) 各系统逻辑结构图 
4 ) 各系统之间的调用关系 
5 ) 数据流关系 
6 ) 核心资产清单 
7 ) 应急响应计划 
8 ) 业务连续性计划 
9 ) 灾难恢复计划

1. ) 简单安全评估

1.1 ) 端口扫描和漏洞检测

主机发现(Ping探测): 
# nmap -sn -PE IP地址或地址段

端口扫描: 
# nmap –open IP地址或地址段

服务版本检测: 
# nmap -sV IP地址或地址段

扫描多个端口: 
# nmap -p 80,443 IP地址或地址段

UDP端口扫描: 
# nmap -sU -p 53 IP地址或地址段

TCP/UDP端口扫描(-Pn 跳过主机发现): 
# nmap -v -Pn -SU -ST -p U:53,111,137,T:21- 
25,80,139,8080 IP地址或地址段

Nessus漏洞检测: 
# nessus -q -x -T html 服务器IP 服务器端口 管理员帐号 密码 目标.txt 输出报告.html

OPENVAS漏洞检测: 
# apt -y install pcregrep 
# wget https://goo.gl/TYbLwE 
# chmod +x openvas-automate.sh && ./openvas-automate.sh 目标IP

1.2 ) WINDOWS系统篇

1.2.1 网络发现

基本网络发现 
# C:> net view /all 
# C:> net view \主机名

Ping探测 
# C:> for /L %I in (1,1,254) do ping -w 30 -n 1 192.168.1.%I | find “回复” >> 输出.txt

1.2.2 DHCP

启用DHCP服务器日志功能: 
# C:> reg add HKLMSystemCurrentControlSetServicesDhcpServerParameters /v ActivityLogFlag /t REG_DWORD /d 1 
默认日志文件路径: 
C:> %windir%System32Dhcp

1.2.3 DNS

启用DNS服务器日志功能: 
# C:> DNSCmd DNS服务器名 /config /logLevel 0x8100F331 
# 配置日志文件路径: 
C:> DNSCmd DNS服务器名 /config /LogFilePath C:dns.log 
# 配置日志文件大小: 
C:> DNSCmd DNS服务器名 /config /logfilemaxsize 0xffffffff

1.2.4 哈希值

文件校验和完整性验证(FCIV): 
Ref:http://support2.microsoft.com/kb/841290 
# 计算单个文件hash值: 
C:> fciv.exe 文件名 
# 计算C盘所有文件的哈市值并把结果保存到文件中: 
C:> fciv.exe c: -r -sha1 -xml 结果.xml 
# 列出所有hash值: 
C:> fciv.exe -list -sha1 -xml 结果.xml 
certutil & PowerShell方法 
# certutil -hashfile 文件名 SHA1 
# PS C:> Get-FileHash 文件名 | Format-List 
# PS C:> Get-FileHash -algorithm md5 文件名

1.2.5 NETBIOS

nbtstat 扫描 
# C:> nbtstat -A 目标IP地址 
NetBIOS缓存 
# C:> nbtstat -c 
批量扫描 
# C:> for /L %I in (1,1,254) do nbtstat -An 192.168.1.%I

1.2.6 微软基线安全分析器(MBSA)

扫描单个IP 
# C:> mbsacli.exe /target IP地址 /n os+iis+sql+password 
扫描IP地址段 
# C:> mbsacli.exe /r IP地址段 /n os+iis+sql+password

1.3 ) LINUX系统篇

1.3.1 网络发现

查看开放的SMB共享 
# smbclient -L 目标主机名

Ping探测 

# for ip in $(seq 1 254); do ping -c1 -w2 192.168.1.$ip>/dev/null; [ $? -eq 0 ] && echo "192.168.1.$ip UP" || : ; done 

1.3.2 DHCP

DHCP日志查询 
RHEL/CentOS 
# cat /var/lib/dhcpd/dhcpd. leases 
Debian/Ubuntu 
# grep -Ei ‘dhcp’ /var/log/syslog.1

1.3.3 DNS

DNS日志查询 
# rndc querylog && tail -f /var/log/messages | grep named

1.3.4 哈希值

计算/sbin目录下所有可执行文件的HASH值 
# find /sbin -type f -exec md5sum {} >> md5sums.txt ; 
# md5deep -rs /sbin > md5sums.txt

1.3.5 NETBIOS

nbtstat 扫描 
# nbtscan 目标IP地址或IP地址段 
举例:nbtscan 192.168.1.2-100

2. ) 安全加固

2.1 ) WINDOWS系统篇

2.1.1 禁用/停止服务 
# C:> sc query 
# C:> sc config “服务名” start= disabled 
# C:> sc stop “服务名” 
# C:> wmic service where name=”服务名” call ChangeStartmode Disabled

2.1.2 防火墙管理 
# 列出所有规则: 
# C:> netsh advfirewall firewall show rule name=all 
# 启用或禁用防火墙: 
C:> netsh advfirewall set currentprofile state on 
C:> netsh advfirewall set currentprofile firewallpolicy blockinboundalways,allowoutbound 
C:> netsh advfirewall set publicprofile state on 
C:> netsh advfirewall set privateprofile state on 
C:> netsh advfirewall set domainprofile state on 
C:> netsh advfirewall set allprofile state on 
C:> netsh advfirewall set allprof ile state off 
# 配置举例: 

netsh advfirewall firewall add rule name="开放TCP:80端口" dir=in action=allow protocol=TCP localport=80 
netsh advfirewall firewall add rule name="开放TCP:443端口" dir=in action=allow protocol=TCP localport=443 
netsh advfirewall firewall add rule name="屏蔽TCP:445端口" dir=in action=block protocol=TCP localport=445 
netsh advfirewall firewall add rule name="允许MyApp" dir=in action=allow program="C:MyAppMyApp.exe" enable=yes 

2.1.3 清除DNS缓存和Netios缓存 
# C:> ipconfig /flushdns 
# C:> nbtstat -R

2.1.4 应用控制 
# AppLocker配置 

# 导入Applocker模块 
PS C:> import-module Applocker 
# 查看system32目录下所有exe文件的Applocker信息 
PS C:> Get-ApplockerFileinformation -Directory C:WindowsSystem32 -Recurse -FileType Exe 
# 增加一条针对system32目录下所有的exe文件的允许规则 
PS C:> Get-Childitem C:WindowsSystem32*,exe | Get-ApplockerFileinformation | New-ApplockerPolicy -RuleType Publisher, Hash -User Everyone -RuleNamePrefix System32 

2.1.5 IPSEC 
# 1.)使用预共享密钥的方式新建一条IPSEC本地安全策略,应用到所有连接和协议 

C:> netsh ipsec static add filter filterlist=MyIPsecFilter srcaddr=Any dstaddr=Any protocol=ANY 
C:> netsh ipsec static add filteraction name=MyIPsecAction action=negotiate 
C:> netsh ipsec static add policy name=MyIPsecPolicy assign=yes 
C:> netsh ipsec static add rule name=MyIPsecRule policy=MyIPsecPolicy filterlist=MyIPsecFilter filteraction=MyIPsecAction conntype=all activate=yes psk=密码

# 2.)新建一条允许访问外网TCP 80和443端口的IPSEC策略 

C:> netsh ipsec static add filteraction name=Allow action=permit 
C:> netsh ipsec static add filter filterlist=WebFilter srcaddr=Any dstaddr=Any protocol=TCP dstport=80 
C:> netsh ipsec static add filter filterlist=WebFilter srcaddr=Any dstaddr=Any protocol=TCP dstport=443 
C:> netsh ipsec static add rule name=WebAllow policy=MyIPsecPolicy filterlist=WebFilter filteraction=Allow conntype=all activate=yes psk=密码 

# 3.)查看和禁用某条IPSEC本地安全策略 

C:> netsh ipsec static show policy name=MyIPsecPolicy 
C:> netsh ipsec static set policy name=MyIPsecPolicy assign=no 

# 新建一条IPSEC对应的防火墙规则,源地址和目的地址为any 

C:> netsh advfirewall consec add rule name="IPSEC" endpointl=any endpoint2=any action=requireinrequireout qmsecmethods=default 

# 新建一条IPSEC对应的防火墙规则,所有出站请求必须提供预共享密钥 

C:> netsh advfirewall firewall add rule name="IPSEC_Out" dir=out action=allow enable=yes profile=any localip=any remoteip=any protocol=any interfacetype=any security=authenticate 

2.1.6 其他安全策略 
# 禁用远程桌面连接 

C:> reg add "HKLMSYSTEMCurrentControlSetControlTerminalServer" /f /v fDenyTSConnections /t REG_DWORD /d 1 

# 只发送NTLMv2响应(防止“永恒之蓝”漏洞攻击) 

C:> reg add HKLMSYSTEMCurrentControlSetControlLsa /v lmcompatibilitylevel /t REG_DWORD /d 5 /f 

# 禁用IPV6 

C:> reg add HKLMSYSTEMCurrentControlSetservicesTCPIP6Parameters /v DisabledComponents /t REG_DWORD /d 255 /f 

# 禁用sticky键 

C:> reg add "HKCUControlPanelAccessibilityStickyKeys" /v Flags /t REG_SZ /d 506 /f 

# 禁用管理共享(Servers/Workstations) 

C:> reg add HKLMSYSTEMCurrentControlSetServicesLanmanServerParameters /f /v AutoShareServer /t REG_DWORD /d 0 
C:> reg add HKLMSYSTEMCurrentControlSetServicesLanmanServerParameters /f /v AutoShareWks /t REG_DWORD /d 0 

# 禁用注册表编辑器和CMD命令提示符 

C:> reg add HKCUSoftwareMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionPoliciesSystem /v DisableRegistryTools /t REG_DWORD /d 1 /f 
C:> reg add HKCUSoftwarePoliciesMicrosoftWindowsSystem /v DisableCMD /t REG_DWORD /d 1 /f 

# 启用UAC 

C:> reg add HKLMSOFTWAREMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionPoliciesSystem /v EnableLUA /t REG_DWORD /d 1 /f 

# 启用防火墙日志功能 

C:> netsh firewall set logging droppedpackets = enable 
C:> netsh firewall set logging connections = enable 

2.2 ) LINUX系统篇

2.2.1 服务管理 
# 查看服务状态 

service --status-all 
ps -ef OR ps -aux 
initctl list 
systemctl list-unit-files 

# 启动,停止和禁用服务 

# For Upstart services: 
/etc/init.d/apache2 start | stop | status 
service apache2 start | stop | status 
update-rc.d apache2 disable 
# For Systemd services: 
systemctl start | stop | status ntp.service 
systemctl disable sshd.service 

2.2.2 防火墙管理 
# iptables 常用操作: 

iptables-save > filewall_rules.bak # 导出当前规则 
iptables -vnL --line # 列出所有规则 
iptables -S # 同上 
iptables -P INPUT DROP # 默认策略,禁止所有连接 
iptables -A INPUT -s 10.10.10.10 -j DROP # 禁止单个IP 
iptables -A INPUT -s 10,10.10.0/24 -j DROP # 禁止一个网段 
iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --dport ssh -s 10.10.10.10 -j DROP # 禁止某IP访问本机SSH服务 
iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --dport ssh -j DROP # 禁止访问本机SSH服务 
iptables -I INPUT 5 -m limit --limit 5/min -j LOG --log-prefix "iptables denied: " --log-level 7 # 启用日志记录 
iptables -F # 清除当前已加载的规则 

2.2.3 DNS缓存 
# Unix/Linux系统没有系统级别DNS缓存

2.2.4 配置IPSEC 
# 在两台服务器之间建立IPSEC通道 

# 1.)添加防火墙规则允许IPSEC协议 
iptables -A INPUT -p esp -j ACCEPT 
iptables -A INPUT -p ah -j ACCEPT 
iptables -A INPUT -p udp --dport 500 -j ACCEPT 
iptables -A INPUT -p udp --dport 4500 -j ACCEPT 
# 安装Racoon 
apt -y install racoon 
# 2.)编辑配置文件:/etc/ipsec-tools.conf 
flush; 
spdflush; 
spdadd 主机A的IP地址 主机B的IP地址 any -P out ipsec 
esp/transport//require; 
spdadd 主机B的IP地址 主机A的IP地址 any -P in ipsec 
esp/transport//require; 
# 3.)编辑配置文件:/etc/racoon/racoon.conf 
log notify; 
path pre_shared_key "/etc/racoon/psk.txt"; 
path certificate "/etc/racoon/certs"; 
remote anonymous { 
exchange_mode main,aggressive; 
proposal { 
encryption_algorithm aes_256; 
hash_algorithm sha256; 
authentication_method 
pre_shared_key; 
dh_group modp1024; 

generate_policy off; 

sainfo anonymous{ 
pfs_group 2; 
encryption_algorithm aes_256; 
authentication_algorithm hmac_sha256; 
compression_algorithm deflate; 

# 4.)添加预共享密钥 
主机A:echo 主机B 123 >> /etc/racoon/psk.txt 
主机B:echo 主机A 123 >> /etc/racoon/psk.txt 
# 5.)重启服务,检查协商及配置策略 
service setkey restart 
setkey -D 
setkey -DP 

3. ) 检测(Visibility)

3.1 ) 网络安全监控

3.1.1 数据包捕捉与分析 

1.)TCPDUMP 
tcpdump -tttt -n -vv # 打印时戳,禁用名称解析并以verbose方式显示 
tcpdump -nn -c 1000 | awk '{print $3}' | cut -d. -f1-4 | sort -n | uniq -c | sort -nr # 捕捉1000个数据包,找出Top talkers 
tcpdump -w target.pcap -i any dst targetIP and port 80 # 在所有接口上捕捉目标IP为:targetIP且端口为80的数据包并写入target.pcap文件 
tcpdump host 10.0.0.1 && host 10.0.0.2 # 捕捉两个主机之间的数据包 
tcpdump not net 10.10 && not host 192.168.1.2 #捕捉非10.10网段及非192.168.1.2主机的数据包
tcpdump host 10.10.10.10 && (10.10.10.20 or 10.10.10.30) # 捕捉主机A与主机B或C的数据包
tcpdump -n -s0 -C 100 -w 001.pcap # 轮询,文件大小超过100M后自动创建新文件 
tcpdump -w - | ssh ServerIP -p 50005 "cat - > /tmp/remotecapture.pcap" # 通过SSH保存数据包到远程服务器上的/tmp/remotecapture.pcap文件 
tcpdump -n -A -s0 port http or port ftp or port smtp or port imap or port pop3 | egrep -i 'pass=|pwd=|log=|login=|user=|username=|pw=|passw=|P 
asswd=|password=|pass:|user:|username:|password:|login:|pass|user' --color=auto --line-buffered -B20 # 抓取明文密码 
tcpdump -s 1500 -A '(tcp[((tcp[12:1] & 0xf0) >> 2)+5:1] = 0x01) and (tcp[((tcp[12:1] & 0xf0) >> 2):1] = 0x16)' #查找自签名证书 
2.)TSHARK 
tshark -nr 001.pcap -Y "ssl.handshake.ciphersuites" -Vx | grep "ServerName:" | sort | uniq -c | sort -r # 提取证书Server Name字段 
tshark -D # 列出所有可用接口 
tshark -i eth0 -i eth1 # 监听多个接口 
tshark -nn -w 001.pcap # 禁用名称解析并保存到文件 
tshark arp or icmp # 捕捉arp或者icmp 
tshark "host 主机A && host 主机B" # 捕捉两个主机之间的数据包 
tshark -r 001.pcap # 读取数据包 
tshark -n -e ip.src -e ip.dst -T fields -E separator=, -2 -R ip -r 001.pcap # 提取源/目的IP地址 
tshark -n -e ip.src -e dns,qry.name -E separator=';' -T fields port 53 # 提取DNS查询的源IP及DNS查询的域名 
tshark -2 -R http.request -T fields -E separator=';' -e http.host -e http.request.uri -r 001.pcap # 提取HTTP请求中的host参数和请求uri 
tshark -n -c 150 I awk '{print $4}' I sort -n | uniq -c | sort -nr # 提取top talkers 
tshark -q -z io,phs -r 001.pcap # 协议统计 
tshark -n -c 100 -e ip.src -Y "dns.flags.response eq 1" -T fields port 53 # 提取DNS响应数据包的DNS服务器地址 
tshark -n -e http.request.uri -Y http.request -T fields | grep exe # 提取通过http请求方式下载exe可执行文件的数据包 
3.)SNORT 
snort -T -c /etc/snort/snort.conf # 配置文件测试 
snort -dv -r 001.log # 读取数据包 
snort -dvr 001.log icmp # 提取icmp数据包 
snort -K ascii -l 001 # 以ASCII格式显示 
snort -q -A console -i eth0 -c /etc/snort/snort.conf # 在终端上显示snort events 
echo 'log tcp 192.168.1.0/24 any -> 192.168.1.95 22 ( msg: "ssh access" ; sid:1618008; )' > 001.rule && snort -T -c 001.rule # 规则测试 
mkdir logs && snort -vd -c 001.rule -r 001.pcap -A console -l logs # 执行规则 
4.)Bro NSM 
安装及下载相关软件包和数据包 
apt -y install bro bro-aux 
pip install bro-pkg 
bro-pkg install bro/hosom/file-extraction 
wget https://www.malware-traffic-analysis.net/2018/01/12/2018-01-12-NanoCore-RAT-traffic.pcap.zip 
wget https://www.bro.org/static/exchange-2013/faf-exercise.pcap 
bro -r 2018-01-12-NanoCore-RAT-traffic.pcap # 从pcap文件中读取并创建相关日志文件 
bro -r faf-exercise.pcap /root/.bro-pkg/scratch/file-extraction/scripts/plugins/extract-pe.bro && ls -lhct ./extract_files/ # 提取出exe文件
bro -r faf-exercise.pcap /usr/share/bro/policy/frameworks/files/extract-all-files.bro # 提取多个类型的文件 
bro -C -r faf-exercise.pcap && cat ssl.log | bro-cut server_name , subject , issuer # 提取证书中的server_name,issuer和subjects字段 
cat conn.log | bro-cut id.orig_h , id.orig_p , id.resp_h , id.resp_p , proto , conn_state # 提取源IP,源端口,目的IP,目的端口,协议类型,tcp标记 
cat dns.log | bro-cut query | sort -u # 提取DNS查询name 
cat http.log | bro-cut id.orig_h , id.orig_p , id.resp_h , id.resp_p , host , uri , referrer # 提取源IP,源端口,目的IP,目的端口,host,uri,referrer字段 
cat http.log | bro-cut user_agent | sort -u # 提取user_agent字段 
5.)EDITCAP 
editcap -F pcap -c 1000 orignal.pcap out_split.pcap # 以1000为单位进行分割 
editcap -F pcap -t+3600 orignal.pcap out_split.pcap # 以1小时为单位进行分割 
6.)MERGECAP 
mergecap -w merged_cap.pcap capl.pcap cap2.pcap cap3.pcap # 合并多个文件 
7.)PacketTotal 
https://www.packettotal.com/app/analysis?id=c8c11b792272ac19a49299a3687466be&name=files 
8.)NetworkMiner 
http://netres.ec/?b=173588E 

3.2 ) 蜜罐技术 
3.2.1 WINDOWS系统篇 

1.) 端口蜜罐 
# 原理:监听端口,当客户端成功建立TCP(3次握手)连接后,记录访问日志,然后添加防火墙规则封禁此IP 
PS C:> certutil.exe -urlcache -split -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/Pwdrkeg/honeyport/master/honeyport.ps1 
PS C:> .honeyport.ps1 -Ports 4444,22,21,23 -WhiteList 192.168.10.1,192.168.10.2 -Block $true -Verbose 
PS C:> Get-EventLog HoneyPort # 查看日志记录信息 
PS C:> stop-job -name HoneyPort # 停止任务 
PS C:> remove-job -name HoneyPort # 移除任务 

3.2.2 LINUX系统篇 

1.) 端口蜜罐 
# 原理同上 
wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/gchetrick/honeyports/master/honeyports-0.5.py 
python honeyports-0.5.py -p 1234 -h 192.168.1.100 -D 

3.3 ) (PASSIVE)监控DNS解析 

apt -y install dnstop 
dnstop -l 3 eth0 
dnstop -l 3 001.pcap | out.txt 

3.4 ) 日志审计 

1.)WINDOWS 
# 增加日志文件大小进行日志审计 
C:> reg add HKLMSoftwarePoliciesMicrosoftWindowsEventlogApplication /v MaxSize /t REG_DWORD /d 0x19000 
C:> reg add HKLMSoftwarePoliciesMicrosoftWindowsEventlogSecurity /v MaxSize /t REG_DWORD /d 0x64000 
C:> reg add HKLMSoftwarePoliciesMicrosoftWindowsEventLogSystem /v MaxSize /t REG_DWORD /d 0x19000 
# 查看Windows事件日志-安全日志的配置 
C:> wevtutil gl Security 
# 检查审核策略 
auditpol /get /category:* 
# 对所有项启用成功和失败的审核策略 
C:> auditpol /set /category:* /success:enable /failure:enable 
# 查看已配置的事件日志的概要信息 
PS C:> Get-Eventlog -list 
# 取最近5条应用程序日志 
PS C:> Get-Eventlog -newest 5 -logname application | Format-List 
# 取Eent ID:4672的所有日志 
PS C:> Get-Eventlog Security | ? { $_.Eventid -eq 4672} 
# 登录与注销事件 
PS C:> Get-Eventlog Security 4625,4634,4647,4624,4625,4648,4675,6272,6273,6274,6275,6276,6277,6278,6279,6280,4649,4778,4779,4800,4801,4802,4803,5378,5632,5633,4964 -after ((get-date).addDays(-1)) 
# DPAPI行为,进程终止,RPC事件 
PS C:> Get-EventLog Security 4692,4693,4694,4695,4689,5712 -after ((get-date).addDays(-1)) 
# 文件共享,文件系统,SAM,注册表,证书时间 
PS C: Get-EventLog Security 4671,4691,4698,4699,4700,4701,4702,5148,5149,5888,5889,5890,4657,5039,4659,4660,4661,4663,4656,4658,4690,4874,4875,4880,4881,4882,4884,4885,4888,4890,4891,4892,4895,4896,4898,5145,5140,5142,5143,5144,5168,5140,5142,5143,5144,5168,5140,5142,5143,5144,5168,4664,4985,5152,5153,5031,5140,5150,5151,5154,5155,5156,5157,5158,5159 -after ((get-date).addDays(-1)) 
# 查看Eent ID:4672的详细信息 
Get-Eventlog Security | ? { $_.Eventid -eq 4672} | Format-List 
2.)LINUX 
# 认证日志 
tail /var/log/auth. log 
grep -i "fail" /var/log/auth. log 
tail /var/log/secure 
grep -i "fail" /var/log/secure 
# samba,cron,sudo相关日志 
grep -i samba /var/log/syslog 
grep -i samba /var/log/messages 
grep -i cron /var/log/syslog 
grep -i sudo /var/log/auth. log 
grep -i sudo /var/log/secure 
# Apache 404错误日志 
grep 404 apache.log | grep -v -E "favicon.ico|robots.txt" 
# 监控新文件,5分钟刷新一次 
watch -n 300 -d ls -lR /web_root 

4. ) 响应(取证)

4.1 ) LIVE TRIAGE(收集运行时系统信息)

4.1.1 WINDOWS系统篇 

1.)系统信息 
C:> echo %DATE% %TIME% 
C:> hostname 
C:> systeminfo 
C:> systeminfo | findstr /B /C:"OS Name" /C:"OS Version" 
C:> wmic csproduct get name 
C:> wmic bios get serialnumber 
C:> wmic computersystem list brief 
C:> psinfo -accepteula -s -h -d 
2.)用户信息 
C:> whoami 
C:> net users 
C:> net localgroup administrators 
C:> net group administrators 
C:> wmic rdtoggle list 
C:> wmic useraccount list 
C:> wmic group list 
C:> wmic netlogin get name,lastlogon,badpasswordcount 
C:> wmic netclient list brief 
C:> doskey /history > history.txt 
3.)网络信息 
C:> netstat -e 
C:> netstat -naob 
C:> netstat -nr 
C:> netstat -vb 
C:> nbtstat -s 
C:> route print 
C:> arp -a 
C:> ipconfig /displaydns 
C:> netsh winhttp show proxy 
C:> ipconfig /allcompartments /all 
C:> netsh wlan show interfaces 
C:> netsh wlan show all 
C:> reg query "HKLMSOFTWAREMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionInternet SettingsConnectionsWinHttpSettings" 
C:> type %SYSTEMROOT%system32driversetchosts 
C:> wmic nicconfig get descriptions,IPaddress,MACaddress 
C:> wmic netuse get name,username,connectiontype, localname 
4.)服务信息 
C:> at 
C:> tasklist 
C:> tasklist /svc 
C:> tasklist /SVC /fi "imagename eq svchost.exe" 
C:> tasklist /SVC /fi "imagename eq svchost.exe" 
C:> schtasks 
C:> net start 
C:> sc query 
C:> wmic service list brief | findstr "Running" 
C:> wmic service list conf ig 
C:> wmic process list brief 
C:> wmic process list status 
C:> wmic process list memory 
C:> wmic job list brief 
PS C:> Get-Service | Where-Object { $_.Status -eq "running" } 
5.)策略、补丁、环境变量信息 
C:> set 
C:> gpresult /r 
C:> gpresult /z > output.txt 
C:> gpresult /H report.html /F 
C:> wmic qfe 
6.)自启动信息 
C:> wmic startup list full 
C:> wmic ntdomain list brief 
6.1)检查自启动文件目录 
C:> dir "%SystemDrive%ProgramDataMicrosoftWindowsStart MenuProgramsStartup" 
C:> dir "%SystemDrive%Documents and SettingsAll UsersStart MenuProgramsStartup"
C:> dir %userprofile%Start MenuProgramsStartup 
C:> %ProgramFiles%Startup 
C:> dir C:WindowsStart MenuProgramsstartup 
C:> dir "C:Users%username%AppDataRoamingMicrosoftWindowsStart MenuProgramsStartup" 
C:> dir "C:ProgramDataMicrosoftWindowsStart MenuProgramsStartup" 
C:> dir "%APPDATA%MicrosoftWindowsStart MenuProgramsStartup" 
C:> dir "%ALLUSERSPROFILE%MicrosoftWindowsStart MenuProgramsStartup" 
C:> dir "%ALLUSERSPROFILE%Start MenuProgramsStartup" 
C:> type C:Windowswinstart.bat 
C:> type %windir%wininit.ini 
C:> type %windir%win.ini 
C:> type C:Autoexec.bat" 
6.2)使用autoruns 
C:> autorunsc -accepteula -m 
6.3)自启动注册表位置 
HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT: 
C:> reg query HKCRComfileShellOpenCommand 
C:> reg query HKCRBatfileShellOpenCommand 
C:> reg query HKCRhtafileShellOpenCommand 
C:> reg query HKCRExefileShellOpenCommand 
C:> reg query HKCRExefilesShellOpenCommand 
C:> reg query HKCRpiffileshellopencommand 
HKEY_CURRENT_USERS: 
C:> reg query "HKCUControl PanelDesktop" 
C:> reg query "HKCUSoftwareMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionPoliciesExplorerRun"
C:> reg query "HKCUSoftwareMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionRun" 
C:> reg query "HKCUSoftwareMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionRunonce" 
C:> reg query "HKCUSoftwareMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionRunOnceEx" 
C:> reg query "HKCUSoftwareMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionRunServices" 
C:> reg query "HKCUSoftwareMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionRunServicesOnce" 
C:> reg query "HKCUSoftwareMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionWindowsRun" 
C:> reg query "HKCUSoftwareMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionWindowsLoad" 
C:> reg query "HKCUSoftwareMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionWindowsScripts" 
C:> reg query "HKCUSoftwareMicrosoftWindowsNTCurrentVersionWindows" /f run 
C:> reg query "HKCUSoftwareMicrosoftWindowsNTCurrentVersionWindows" /f load 
C:> reg query "HKCUSoftwareMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionPoliciesExplorerRun"
C:> reg query "HKCUSoftwareMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionExplorerRecentDocs" 
C:> reg query "HKCUSoftwareMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionExplorerComDlg32LastVisitedMRU" 
C:> reg query "HKCUSoftwareMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionExplorerComD1g32OpenSaveMRU" 
C:> reg query "HKCUSoftwareMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionExplorerComDlg32LastVisitedPidlMRU"
C:> reg query "HKCUSoftwareMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionExplorerComD1g32OpenSavePidlMRU" /s
C:> reg query "HKCUSoftwareMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionExplorerRunMRU" 
C:> reg query "HKCUSoftwareMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionExplorerShell Folders" 
C:> reg query "HKCUSoftwareMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionExplorerUser Shell Folders" 
C:> reg query "HKCUSoftwareMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionAppletsRegEdit" /v LastKey 
C:> reg query "HKCUSoftwareMicrosoftInternetExplorer" TypedURLs 
C:> reg query "HKCUSoftwarePoliciesMicrosoftWindowsControlPanelDesktop" 
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE: 
C:> reg query "HKLMSOFTWAREMicrosoftActive SetupInstalled Components" /s 
C:> reg query "HKLMSOFTWAREMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionexplorerUser Shell Folders" 
C:> reg query "HKLMSOFTWAREMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionexplorerShell Folders" 
C:> reg query "HKLMSoftwareMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionexplorerShellExecuteHooks" 
C:> reg query "HKLMSOFTWAREMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionExplorerBrowser Helper Objects" /s 
C:> reg query "HKLMSOFTWAREMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionPoliciesExplorerRun"
C:> reg query "HKLMSOFTWAREMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionRun" 
C:> reg query "HKLMSOFTWAREMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionRunonce" 
C:> reg query "HKLMSOFTWAREMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionRunOnceEx" 
C:> reg query "HKLMSOFTWAREMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionRunServices" 
C:> reg query "HKLMSOFTWAREMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionRunServicesOnce" 
C:> reg query "HKLMSOFTWAREMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionWinlogonUserinit" 
C:> reg query "HKLMSOFTWAREMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionshellServiceObjectDelayLoad" 
C:> reg query "HKLMSOFTWAREMicrosoftWindowsNTCurrentVersionScheduleTaskCacheTasks" /s 
C:> reg query "HKLMSOFTWAREMicrosoftWindowsNTCurrentVersionWindows" 
C:> reg query "HKLMSOFTWAREMicrosoftWindowsNTCurrentVersionWindows" /f Appinit_DLLs 
C:> reg query "HKLMSOFTWAREMicrosoftWindowsNTCurrentVersionWinlogon" /f Shell 
C:> reg query "HKLMSOFTWAREMic rosoftWindowsNTCurrentVersionWinlogon" /f Userinit 
C:> reg query "HKLMSOFTWAREPoliciesMicrosoftWindowsSysternScripts" 
C:> reg query "HKLMSOFTWAREClassesbatfileshellopencornrnand" 
C:> reg query "HKLMSOFTWAREClassescornfileshellopencornrnand" 
C:> reg query "HKLMSOFTWAREClassesexefileshellopencommand" 
C:> reg query "HKLMSOFTWAREClasseshtafileShellOpenCommand" 
C:> reg query "HKLMSOFTWAREClassespiffileshellopencommand" 
C:> reg query "HKLMSOFTWAREWow6432NodeMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionExplorerBrowser Helper Objects" /s 
C:> reg query "HKLMSYSTEMCurrentControlSetControlSessionManager" 
C:> reg query "HKLMSYSTEMCurrentControlSetControlSessionManagerKnownDLLs" 
C:> reg query "HKLMSYSTEMControlSet001ControlSessionManagerKnownDLLs" 
7.)取日志文件 
C:> wevtutil epl Security C:bakSecurity-logs.evtx 
C:> wevtutil epl System C:bakSystem-logs.evtx 
C:> wevtutil epl Application C:bakApplication-logs.evtx 
8.)文件、目录、共享信息 
C:> net use \目标IP 
C:> net share 
C:> net session 
C:> wmic volume list brief 
C:> wmic logicaldisk get description,filesystem,name,size 
C:> wmic share get name,path 
# 查找多个类型的文件或某个文件 
C:> dir /A /S /T:A *.exe *.dll *.bat *.PS1 *.zip 
C:> dir /A /S /T:A evil.exe 
# 查找2017/1/1之后创建的文件 
C:> forfiles /p C: /M *.exe /S /D +2017/1/1 /C "cmd /c echo @fdate @ftime @path" 
C:> for %G in (.exe, .dll, .bat, .ps) do forfiles -p "C:" -m *%G -s -d +2017/1/1 -c "cmd /c echo @fdate @ftime @path" 
# 查找文件大小>20MB的文件 
forfiles /S /M * /C "cmd /c if @fsize GEQ 2097152 echo @path @fsize" 
# 在Alternate Data Streams中查找文件 
C:> streams -s 文件或目录 
# 检查数字签名,vt扫描 
C:> sigcheck -e -u -vr -s C: 
C:> listdlls.exe -u 
# 扫描病毒 
C:> "C:Program FilesWindows DefenderMpCmdRun.exe" -SignatureUpdate 
C:> "C:Program FilesWindows DefenderMpCmdRun.exe" -Scan 

4.2 ) LIVE TRIAGE(收集运行时系统信息)

4.2.1 LINUX篇 

1.)系统信息 
uname -a 
uptime 
timedatectl 
mount 
2.)用户信息 

lastlog 
last 
faillog -a 
cat /etc/passwd 
cat /etc/shadow 
cat /etc/group 
cat /etc/sudoers 
# 查找UID为0的用户 
awk -F: '($3 == "0") {print}' /etc/passwd 
egrep ':0+' /etc/passwd 
cat /root/.ssh/authorized_keys 
lsof -u root 
cat /root/.bash_history 
3.)网络信息 
# 查看网络接口 
ifconfig OR ip a l 
# 查看监听端口 
netstat -tupnl 
# 查看网络连接 
netstat -tupnla 
netstat -tupnlax 
# 路由信息 
route OR netstat -r OR ip r l 
# ARP表 
arp -ne 
# 监听端口的进程 
lsof -i 
4.)服务信息 
# 列出所有进程 
ps aux OR ps -ef 
# 已加载内核模块 
lsmod 
# 打开的文件 
lsof 
lsof -c sshd 
lsof -p PID 
lsof -nPi | cut -f1 -d" " | uniq | tail -n +2 
# 监控日志 
less +F /var/log/messages 
tail -F /var/log/messages 
journalctl -u ssh.service -f 
# 列出所有服务 
chkconfig --list 
systemctl list-units 
5.)策略、补丁、环境变量信息 
# 检查pam.d目录相关文件 
cat /etc/pam.d/common* 
# 自启动信息 - 计划任务 
crontab -l 
crontab -u root -l 
cat /etc/crontab 
ls /etc/cron,* 
6.)命令历史 
cat /root/.*history 
7.)文件、目录、共享信息 
df -ah 
ls -lhcta /etc/init.d/ 
stat -x filename 
file filename 
# 特殊属性文件 
lsattr -R / | grep "-i-" 
# 全局可写文件 
find / -xdev -type d ( -perm -0002 -a ! -perm -1000 ) -print 
# 某时间点之后新建的文件 
find / -newermt 2018-01-22q 
# 打印文件的所有属性信息 
find /labs -printf "%m;%Ax;%AT;%Tx;%TT;%Cx;%CT;%U;%G;%s;%pn" 
# 查看文件的元数据 
stat 文件名 
8.) 简单基线检查 
wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/pentestmonkey/unix-privesc-check/1_x/unix-privesc-check && ./unix-privesc-check > output.txt 
9.) 检测rootkit 
chkrootkit 
rkhunter --update && rkhunter -check 
tiger && less /var/log/tiger/security.report.* 
lynis && lynis audit system && more /var/logs/lynis. log 
10.) Fastir Collector Linux,收集artefacts,包括:内核版本、内核模块、网卡、系统版本、主机名、登录、网络连接、SSH know_host、日志文件、进程数据、自启动等信息 
wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/SekoiaLab/Fastir_Collector_Linux/master/fastIR_collector_linux.py
python fastIR_collector_linux.py --debug --output_dir output 
11.) Sysdig and Sysdig Falco 行为监控 
# 观察root用户查看过的目录 
sysdig -p"%evt.arg.path" "evt.type=chdir and user.name=root" 
# 观察SSHD行为 
sysdig -A -c echo_fds fd.name=/dev/ptmx and proc.name=sshd 
# id为5459的登录shell执行过的所有命令 
sysdig -r trace.scap.gz -c spy_users proc.loginshellid=5459 
# 安装,启动falco 
curl -s https://s3.amazonaws.com/download.draios.com/DRAIOS-GPG-KEY.public | apt-key add - 
curl -s -o /etc/apt/sources.list.d/draios.list http://download.draios.com/stable/deb/draios.list 
sudo apt update 
apt -y install falco 
modprobe sysdig-probe 
service falco start 
falco 

4.3 ) 病毒样本分析 

# 静态分析 
# 挂载Sysinternals工具集 
\live.sysinternals.comtools 
# 检查数字签名 
C:> sigcheck.exe -u -e C:malware 
C:> sigcheck.exe -vt malware.exe 
# 16机制和ASCII方式查看PE文件 
hexdump -C -n 500 malware.exe 
od -x mailware.exe 
xxd malware.exe 
strings -a malware.exe | more 
# 内存镜像分析 
python vol.py -f malware_memory_dump.raw -profile=Win7SPFix64 malfind -D /output 
python vol.py -f malware_memory_dump.raw -profile=Win7SPFix64 malfind -p PID -D /output 
python vol.py -f malware_memory_dump.raw -profile=Win7SPFix64 pslist 
python vol.py -f malware_memory_dump.raw -profile=Win7SPFix64 pstree 
python vol.py -f malware_memory_dump.raw -profile=Win7SPFix64 dlllist 
python vol.py -f malware_memory_dump.raw -profile=Win7SPFix64 dlldump -D /output 
# HASH分析 
curl -v --request POST --url https://www.virustotal.com/vtapi/v2/file/report' -d apikey=VT API KEY -d 'resource=样本文件hash' 
curl -v -F 'file=malware.exe' -F apikey=VT API KEY>https://www.virustotal.com/vtapi/v2/file/scan 
whois -h hash,cymru.com 样本文件hash 
# 获取磁盘和内存镜像 
# WINDOWS 
C:> psexec.exe \IP -u <DOMAIN>administrator -p 123 -c mdd_l.3.exe --o C:memory.dmp 
C:> dc3dd.exe if=\.c: of=d:diskiamge.dd hash=md5 log=d:output.log 
# LINUX 
dd if=/dev/fmem of=/tmp/mem_dump.dd 
# 使用LiME 
get https://github.com/504ensicslabs/LiME/archive/master.zip 
unzip master.zip 
cd LiME-master/src 
make 
cp lime-*.ko /media/USB/ 
insmod lime-3.13.0-79-generic.ko "path=/media/USB/mem_dump.lime format= raw" 
# 从内存中拷贝PE文件 
cp /proc/进程ID/exe /output 
# 创建进程core dump 
gcore 进程ID 
strings -a gcore.* | more 
dd if=/dev/sda of=/root/sda.dd 
dd if=/dev/sda | ssh [email protected] "dd of=/root/sda.dd" 
# 通过netcat传送接收镜像文件 
bzip2 -c /dev/sda | nc 8.8.8.8 53 
nc -p 53 -l | bzip2 -d | dd of=/root/sda.dd 

5. ) 常用技巧(TIPS & TRICKS)

5.1 ) 技巧

5.1.1 WINDOWS系统篇 

# 将命令结果通过管道输出到粘帖板,然后将粘帖板的内容重定向到文件 
C:> some_command.exe | clip 
PS C:> Get-Clipboard > clip.txt 
# 检查注册表某路径是否存在 
PS C:> Test-Path "HKCU:SoftwareMicrosoft123" 
# 可靠文件复制 
robocopy c:src \目标计算机dst /E 
# 检查某目录是否存在ps1,vbs扩展的文件 
PS C:> Test-Path C:ScriptsArchive* -include *.ps1, *.vbs 
# 合并多个文件 
C:> type 1.txt 2.txt > output.txt 
# 多个桌面窗口(Desktops) 
C:>"%ProgramFiles%Internet Exploreriexplore.exe" https://live.sysinternals.com/desktops.exe 
# 在远程计算机执行命令 
C:> psexec.exe \远程计算机 -u admin -p 123 /c c:123.exe 
PS C:> Invoke-Command -远程计算机 { ls } 
# 比较两个文件的差异 
PS C:> Compare-Object (-Content 1.log) -DifferenceObject (Get-Content 2.log) 
# 进制转换与编码 
C:> set /a 0xff 
PS C:> 0xff 
C:> certutil -decode BASE64编码文件 output.file 
# 解码XOR,搜索关键字:http 
C:> xorsearch.exe -i -s input.file http 

5.1.2 LINUX系统篇 

# 通过ssh在远程服务器上抓包 
ssh [email protected] tcpdump -i any -U -s 0 -w - 'not port 22' 

5.2 ) SNORT 
# SNORT规则检测Meterpreter 

# Snort rules by Didier Stevens (http://DidierStevens.com) 
alert tcp $HOME_NET any -> $EXTERNAL_NET $HTTP_PORTS (msg:"Metasploit Meterpreter"; flow:to_server,established; content:"RECV"; http_client_body; depth:4; fast_pattern; isdataat:!0,relative; urilen:23<>24,norm; content:"POST"; pcre:"/^/[a-z0-9]{4,5}_[a-z0-9]{16}/$/Ui"; classtype:trojan-activity; reference:url,blog.didierstevens.com/2015/05/11/detecting-network-traffic-from-metasploits-meterpreter-reverse-http-module/; sid:1618008; rev:1;) 
https://didierstevens.com/files/software/snort-rules-V0_0_1.zip 
# SNORT规则检测PSEXEC 
alert tcp $HOME_NET any -> $HOME_NET [139,445] (msg:"POLICY-OTHER use of psexec remote administration tool"; flow:to_server,established; content:"|FF|SMB|A2|"; depth:5; offset:4; content:"|5C 00|p|00|s|00|e|00|x|00|e|00|c|00|s|00|v|00|c"; nocase; metadata:service netbios-ssn; reference:url,technet.microsoft.com/en-us/sysinternals/bb897553.aspx; classtype:policy-violation; sid:24008; rev:1;) 
alert tcp $HOME_NET any -> $HOME_NET [139,445] (msg:"POLICY-OTHER use of psexec remote administration tool SMBv2"; flow:to_server,established; content:"|FE|SMB"; depth:8; nocase; content:"|05 00|"; within:2; distance:8; content:"P|00|S||E|00|X|00|E|00|S|00|V|00|C|00|"; fast_pattern:only; metadata:service netbios-ssn; reference:url,technet.microsoft.com/en-us/sysinternals/bb897553.aspx; classtype:policy-violation; sid:30281; rev:1;) 

5.3 ) Bro NSM 
# 检测横向渗透 

wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/richiercyrus/Bro-Scripts/master/detect-mal-smb-files.bro 
bro -r faf-exercise.pcap detect-mal-smb-files.bro 
less notice.log 
# 检测勒索软件 
wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/fox-it/bro-scripts/master/smb-ransomware/smb-ransomware.bro 
bro -r faf-exercise.pcap smb-ransomware.bro 

5.4 ) 检测DOS/DDOS 
# 检测攻击类型SYN Flood,ICMP Flood,UDP Flood 

tshark -r 001.pcap -q -z io,phs 
tshark -c 1000 - -z io,phs 
tcpdump -tnr $ | awk -F '.' '{print $1"."$2"."$3"."$4}' | sort | uniq -c | sort -n | tail 
tcpdump -qnn "tcp[tcpflags] & (tcp-syn) != 0" 
netstat -s 
tcpdump -nn not arp and not icmp and not udp 
netstat -n | awk '{print $6}' | sort | uniq -c | sort -nr | head 
# 应用层 
tshark -c 10000 -T fields -e http.host | sort | uniq -c | sort -r | head -n 10 
tshark -r capture6 -T fields -e http.request.full_uri | sort | uniq -c | sort -r | head -n 10c 
tcpdump -n 'tcp[32:4] = 0x47455420' | cut -f 7- -d":" 
# 查找http请求中包含:GIF,ZIP,JPEG,PDF,PNG扩展的数据包 
tshark -Y "http contains "ff:d8"" || "http contains "GIF89a"" || "http contains "x50x4Bx03x04"" || "http contains "xffxd8"" || "http contains "%PDF"" || "http contains "x89x50x4Ex47"" 
取'user-agent'和refer字段 
tcpdump -c 1000 -Ann I grep -Ei 'user-agent' | sort | uniq -c | sort -nr | head -10 
tcpdump -i en0 -A -s 500 | grep -i refer 
# 第二层攻击 
tcpdump 'arp or icmp' 
tcpdump -tnr 001.pcap ARP | awk -F '.' '{print $1"."$2"."$3"."$4}' | sort | uniq -c | sort -n | tail 
tshark -r 001.pcap -q -z io,phs | grep arp.duplicate-address-detected 

5.5 ) 蓝队兵器谱 

6.4.1) KALI 渗透测试发行版 
https://www.kali.org 
6.4.2)SIFT SANS 取证工具箱 
http://sift.readthedocs.org/ 
6.4.3)REMNUX 软件逆向和病毒分析发行版 
https://remnux.org 
6.4.4)OPENVAS 
http://www.openvas.org 
6.4.5)Security Onion 入侵检测、网络安全监控、日志分析发行版 
https://securityonion.net 
6.4.6)OSSEC 开源主机入侵检测系统 
http://ossec.github.io 


原文链接: http://www.4hou.com/technology/10173.html

如果觉得文章对你有帮助,请支持下点击右下角“在看”

红蓝对抗 - 蓝队手册


本文始发于微信公众号(LemonSec):红蓝对抗 - 蓝队手册

发表评论

:?: :razz: :sad: :evil: :!: :smile: :oops: :grin: :eek: :shock: :???: :cool: :lol: :mad: :twisted: :roll: :wink: :idea: :arrow: :neutral: :cry: :mrgreen: