CWE-319 敏感数据的明文传输

admin 2022年1月5日21:07:14CWE(弱点枚举)评论14 views4943字阅读16分28秒阅读模式

CWE-319 敏感数据的明文传输

Cleartext Transmission of Sensitive Information

结构: Simple

Abstraction: Base

状态: Draft

被利用可能性: High

基本描述

The software transmits sensitive or security-critical data in cleartext in a communication channel that can be sniffed by unauthorized actors.

扩展描述

Many communication channels can be "sniffed" by attackers during data transmission. For example, network traffic can often be sniffed by any attacker who has access to a network interface. This significantly lowers the difficulty of exploitation by attackers.

相关缺陷

  • cwe_Nature: ChildOf cwe_CWE_ID: 311 cwe_View_ID: 1000 cwe_Ordinal: Primary

  • cwe_Nature: ChildOf cwe_CWE_ID: 311 cwe_View_ID: 1003 cwe_Ordinal: Primary

  • cwe_Nature: ChildOf cwe_CWE_ID: 311 cwe_View_ID: 699 cwe_Ordinal: Primary

适用平台

Language: {'cwe_Class': 'Language-Independent', 'cwe_Prevalence': 'Undetermined'}

Paradigm: {'cwe_Name': 'Mobile', 'cwe_Prevalence': 'Undetermined'}

常见的影响

范围 影响 注释
['Integrity', 'Confidentiality'] ['Read Application Data', 'Modify Files or Directories'] Anyone can read the information by gaining access to the channel being used for communication.

检测方法

DM-11 Black Box

Use monitoring tools that examine the software's process as it interacts with the operating system and the network. This technique is useful in cases when source code is unavailable, if the software was not developed by you, or if you want to verify that the build phase did not introduce any new weaknesses. Examples include debuggers that directly attach to the running process; system-call tracing utilities such as truss (Solaris) and strace (Linux); system activity monitors such as FileMon, RegMon, Process Monitor, and other Sysinternals utilities (Windows); and sniffers and protocol analyzers that monitor network traffic.

Attach the monitor to the process, trigger the feature that sends the data, and look for the presence or absence of common cryptographic functions in the call tree. Monitor the network and determine if the data packets contain readable commands. Tools exist for detecting if certain encodings are in use. If the traffic contains high entropy, this might indicate the usage of encryption.

可能的缓解方案

Architecture and Design

策略:

Encrypt the data with a reliable encryption scheme before transmitting.

Implementation

策略:

When using web applications with SSL, use SSL for the entire session from login to logout, not just for the initial login page.

Testing

策略:

Use tools and techniques that require manual (human) analysis, such as penetration testing, threat modeling, and interactive tools that allow the tester to record and modify an active session. These may be more effective than strictly automated techniques. This is especially the case with weaknesses that are related to design and business rules.

Operation

策略:

Configure servers to use encrypted channels for communication, which may include SSL or other secure protocols.

示例代码

The following code attempts to establish a connection to a site to communicate sensitive information.

bad Java

try {

URL u = new URL("http://www.secret.example.org/");
HttpURLConnection hu = (HttpURLConnection) u.openConnection();
hu.setRequestMethod("PUT");
hu.connect();
OutputStream os = hu.getOutputStream();
hu.disconnect();

}
catch (IOException e) {


//...

}

Though a connection is successfully made, the connection is unencrypted and it is possible that all sensitive data sent to or received from the server will be read by unintended actors.

分析过的案例

标识 说明 链接
CVE-2002-1949 Passwords transmitted in cleartext. https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2002-1949
CVE-2008-4122 Chain: Use of HTTPS cookie without "secure" flag causes it to be transmitted across unencrypted HTTP. https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2008-4122
CVE-2008-3289 Product sends password hash in cleartext in violation of intended policy. https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2008-3289
CVE-2008-4390 Remote management feature sends sensitive information including passwords in cleartext. https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2008-4390
CVE-2007-5626 Backup routine sends password in cleartext in email. https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2007-5626
CVE-2004-1852 Product transmits Blowfish encryption key in cleartext. https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2004-1852
CVE-2008-0374 Printer sends configuration information, including administrative password, in cleartext. https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2008-0374
CVE-2007-4961 Chain: cleartext transmission of the MD5 hash of password enables attacks against a server that is susceptible to replay (CWE-294). https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2007-4961
CVE-2007-4786 Product sends passwords in cleartext to a log server. https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2007-4786
CVE-2005-3140 Product sends file with cleartext passwords in e-mail message intended for diagnostic purposes. https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2005-3140

分类映射

映射的分类名 ImNode ID Fit Mapped Node Name
PLOVER Plaintext Transmission of Sensitive Information
The CERT Oracle Secure Coding Standard for Java (2011) SEC06-J Do not rely on the default automatic signature verification provided by URLClassLoader and java.util.jar
The CERT Oracle Secure Coding Standard for Java (2011) SER02-J Sign then seal sensitive objects before sending them outside a trust boundary
Software Fault Patterns SFP23 Exposed Data

相关攻击模式

  • CAPEC-102
  • CAPEC-383
  • CAPEC-477
  • CAPEC-65

引用

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  • 本文由 发表于 2022年1月5日21:07:14
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