CWE-259 使用硬编码的口令

admin 2022年1月5日21:04:49CWE(弱点枚举)评论20 views6941字阅读23分8秒阅读模式

CWE-259 使用硬编码的口令

Use of Hard-coded Password

结构: Simple

Abstraction: Base

状态: Draft

被利用可能性: High

基本描述

The software contains a hard-coded password, which it uses for its own inbound authentication or for outbound communication to external components.

扩展描述

A hard-coded password typically leads to a significant authentication failure that can be difficult for the system administrator to detect. Once detected, it can be difficult to fix, so the administrator may be forced into disabling the product entirely. There are two main variations:

In the Inbound variant, a default administration account is created, and a simple password is hard-coded into the product and associated with that account. This hard-coded password is the same for each installation of the product, and it usually cannot be changed or disabled by system administrators without manually modifying the program, or otherwise patching the software. If the password is ever discovered or published (a common occurrence on the Internet), then anybody with knowledge of this password can access the product. Finally, since all installations of the software will have the same password, even across different organizations, this enables massive attacks such as worms to take place.

The Outbound variant applies to front-end systems that authenticate with a back-end service. The back-end service may require a fixed password which can be easily discovered. The programmer may simply hard-code those back-end credentials into the front-end software. Any user of that program may be able to extract the password. Client-side systems with hard-coded passwords pose even more of a threat, since the extraction of a password from a binary is usually very simple.

相关缺陷

  • cwe_Nature: ChildOf cwe_CWE_ID: 798 cwe_View_ID: 1000 cwe_Ordinal: Primary

  • cwe_Nature: ChildOf cwe_CWE_ID: 798 cwe_View_ID: 699 cwe_Ordinal: Primary

  • cwe_Nature: PeerOf cwe_CWE_ID: 321 cwe_View_ID: 1000

  • cwe_Nature: PeerOf cwe_CWE_ID: 257 cwe_View_ID: 1000

适用平台

Language: {'cwe_Class': 'Language-Independent', 'cwe_Prevalence': 'Undetermined'}

常见的影响

范围 影响 注释
Access Control Gain Privileges or Assume Identity If hard-coded passwords are used, it is almost certain that malicious users will gain access through the account in question.

检测方法

Manual Analysis

This weakness can be detected using tools and techniques that require manual (human) analysis, such as penetration testing, threat modeling, and interactive tools that allow the tester to record and modify an active session.

These may be more effective than strictly automated techniques. This is especially the case with weaknesses that are related to design and business rules.

DM-11.6 Black Box

Use monitoring tools that examine the software's process as it interacts with the operating system and the network. This technique is useful in cases when source code is unavailable, if the software was not developed by you, or if you want to verify that the build phase did not introduce any new weaknesses. Examples include debuggers that directly attach to the running process; system-call tracing utilities such as truss (Solaris) and strace (Linux); system activity monitors such as FileMon, RegMon, Process Monitor, and other Sysinternals utilities (Windows); and sniffers and protocol analyzers that monitor network traffic.

Attach the monitor to the process and perform a login. Using disassembled code, look at the associated instructions and see if any of them appear to be comparing the input to a fixed string or value.

可能的缓解方案

Architecture and Design

策略:

For outbound authentication: store passwords outside of the code in a strongly-protected, encrypted configuration file or database that is protected from access by all outsiders, including other local users on the same system. Properly protect the key (CWE-320). If you cannot use encryption to protect the file, then make sure that the permissions are as restrictive as possible.

Architecture and Design

策略:

For inbound authentication: Rather than hard-code a default username and password for first time logins, utilize a "first login" mode that requires the user to enter a unique strong password.

Architecture and Design

策略:

Perform access control checks and limit which entities can access the feature that requires the hard-coded password. For example, a feature might only be enabled through the system console instead of through a network connection.

Architecture and Design

策略:

For inbound authentication: apply strong one-way hashes to your passwords and store those hashes in a configuration file or database with appropriate access control. That way, theft of the file/database still requires the attacker to try to crack the password. When receiving an incoming password during authentication, take the hash of the password and compare it to the hash that you have saved.
Use randomly assigned salts for each separate hash that you generate. This increases the amount of computation that an attacker needs to conduct a brute-force attack, possibly limiting the effectiveness of the rainbow table method.

Architecture and Design

策略:
For front-end to back-end connections: Three solutions are possible, although none are complete.

示例代码

The following code uses a hard-coded password to connect to a database:

bad Java

...
DriverManager.getConnection(url, "scott", "tiger");
...

This is an example of an external hard-coded password on the client-side of a connection. This code will run successfully, but anyone who has access to it will have access to the password. Once the program has shipped, there is no going back from the database user "scott" with a password of "tiger" unless the program is patched. A devious employee with access to this information can use it to break into the system. Even worse, if attackers have access to the bytecode for application, they can use the javap -c command to access the disassembled code, which will contain the values of the passwords used. The result of this operation might look something like the following for the example above:

attack

javap -c ConnMngr.class

22: ldc #36; //String jdbc:mysql://ixne.com/rxsql
24: ldc #38; //String scott
26: ldc #17; //String tiger

The following code is an example of an internal hard-coded password in the back-end:

bad C

int VerifyAdmin(char *password) {

if (strcmp(password, "Mew!")) {


printf("Incorrect Password!n");
return(0)

}
printf("Entering Diagnostic Mode...n");
return(1);

}

bad Java

int VerifyAdmin(String password) {

if (!password.equals("Mew!")) {

return(0)

}
//Diagnostic Mode
return(1);

}

Every instance of this program can be placed into diagnostic mode with the same password. Even worse is the fact that if this program is distributed as a binary-only distribution, it is very difficult to change that password or disable this "functionality."

The following examples show a portion of properties and configuration files for Java and ASP.NET applications. The files include username and password information but they are stored in plaintext.

This Java example shows a properties file with a plaintext username / password pair.

bad Java


# Java Web App ResourceBundle properties file

...
webapp.ldap.username=secretUsername
webapp.ldap.password=secretPassword
...

The following example shows a portion of a configuration file for an ASP.Net application. This configuration file includes username and password information for a connection to a database but the pair is stored in plaintext.

bad ASP.NET

...


...

Username and password information should not be included in a configuration file or a properties file in plaintext as this will allow anyone who can read the file access to the resource. If possible, encrypt this information and avoid CWE-260 and CWE-13.

Notes

分类映射

映射的分类名 ImNode ID Fit Mapped Node Name
7 Pernicious Kingdoms Password Management: Hard-Coded Password
CLASP Use of hard-coded password
OWASP Top Ten 2004 A3 CWE More Specific Broken Authentication and Session Management
The CERT Oracle Secure Coding Standard for Java (2011) MSC03-J Never hard code sensitive information
Software Fault Patterns SFP33 Hardcoded sensitive data

引用

文章来源于互联网:scap中文网

特别标注: 本站(CN-SEC.COM)所有文章仅供技术研究,若将其信息做其他用途,由用户承担全部法律及连带责任,本站不承担任何法律及连带责任,请遵守中华人民共和国安全法.
  • 我的微信
  • 微信扫一扫
  • weinxin
  • 我的微信公众号
  • 微信扫一扫
  • weinxin
admin
  • 本文由 发表于 2022年1月5日21:04:49
  • 转载请保留本文链接(CN-SEC中文网:感谢原作者辛苦付出):
                  CWE-259 使用硬编码的口令 http://cn-sec.com/archives/612808.html

发表评论

匿名网友 填写信息

:?: :razz: :sad: :evil: :!: :smile: :oops: :grin: :eek: :shock: :???: :cool: :lol: :mad: :twisted: :roll: :wink: :idea: :arrow: :neutral: :cry: :mrgreen: