CWE-87 替代XSS语法转义处理不恰当

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所属分类:CWE(弱点枚举)

CWE-87 替代XSS语法转义处理不恰当

Improper Neutralization of Alternate XSS Syntax

结构: Simple

Abstraction: Variant

状态: Draft

被利用可能性: unkown

基本描述

The software does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes user-controlled input for alternate script syntax.

相关缺陷

  • cwe_Nature: ChildOf cwe_CWE_ID: 79 cwe_View_ID: 1000 cwe_Ordinal: Primary

  • cwe_Nature: ChildOf cwe_CWE_ID: 79 cwe_View_ID: 699 cwe_Ordinal: Primary

适用平台

Language: {'cwe_Class': 'Language-Independent', 'cwe_Prevalence': 'Undetermined'}

常见的影响

范围 影响 注释
['Confidentiality', 'Integrity', 'Availability'] ['Read Application Data', 'Execute Unauthorized Code or Commands']

可能的缓解方案

Implementation

策略:

Resolve all input to absolute or canonical representations before processing.

Implementation

策略:

Carefully check each input parameter against a rigorous positive specification (whitelist) defining the specific characters and format allowed. All input should be neutralized, not just parameters that the user is supposed to specify, but all data in the request, including tag attributes, hidden fields, cookies, headers, the URL itself, and so forth. A common mistake that leads to continuing XSS vulnerabilities is to validate only fields that are expected to be redisplayed by the site. We often encounter data from the request that is reflected by the application server or the application that the development team did not anticipate. Also, a field that is not currently reflected may be used by a future developer. Therefore, validating ALL parts of the HTTP request is recommended.

MIT-30.1 Implementation

策略: Output Encoding

Use and specify an output encoding that can be handled by the downstream component that is reading the output. Common encodings include ISO-8859-1, UTF-7, and UTF-8. When an encoding is not specified, a downstream component may choose a different encoding, either by assuming a default encoding or automatically inferring which encoding is being used, which can be erroneous. When the encodings are inconsistent, the downstream component might treat some character or byte sequences as special, even if they are not special in the original encoding. Attackers might then be able to exploit this discrepancy and conduct injection attacks; they even might be able to bypass protection mechanisms that assume the original encoding is also being used by the downstream component.
The problem of inconsistent output encodings often arises in web pages. If an encoding is not specified in an HTTP header, web browsers often guess about which encoding is being used. This can open up the browser to subtle XSS attacks.

MIT-43 Implementation

策略:

With Struts, write all data from form beans with the bean's filter attribute set to true.

MIT-31 Implementation

策略: Attack Surface Reduction

To help mitigate XSS attacks against the user's session cookie, set the session cookie to be HttpOnly. In browsers that support the HttpOnly feature (such as more recent versions of Internet Explorer and Firefox), this attribute can prevent the user's session cookie from being accessible to malicious client-side scripts that use document.cookie. This is not a complete solution, since HttpOnly is not supported by all browsers. More importantly, XMLHTTPRequest and other powerful browser technologies provide read access to HTTP headers, including the Set-Cookie header in which the HttpOnly flag is set.

示例代码

In the following example, an XSS neutralization routine checks for the lower-case "script" string but does not account for alternate strings ("SCRIPT", for example).

bad Java

public String preventXSS(String input, String mask) {

return input.replaceAll("script", mask);

}

分析过的案例

标识 说明 链接

分类映射

映射的分类名 ImNode ID Fit Mapped Node Name
PLOVER Alternate XSS syntax
Software Fault Patterns SFP24 Tainted input to command

相关攻击模式

  • CAPEC-199

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