admin 2022年7月8日22:24:27安全闲碎评论10 views5057字阅读16分51秒阅读模式

Indentifying Threats


There's an almost infinite possibility of threats, so it's important to use a structured approach to accurately identify relevant threats. For example, some organizations use one or more of the following three approaches: 

  • Focused on Assets This method uses asset valuation results and attempts to identify threats to the valuable assets.

  • Focused on Attackers Some organizations are able to identify potential attackers and can identify the threats they represent based on the attacker's motivations, goals, or tactics(战术),techniques, and procedures (TTPs). 

  • Focused on Software If an organization develops software, it can consider potential threats against the software. 

  • Repudiation: The ability of a user or attacker to deny having performed an action or activity by maintaining plausible deniability. Repudiation attacks can also result in innocent third parties being blamed for security violations. 


  • 注重资产 这种方法使用资产评估结果,并试图确定对有价值资产的威胁。

  • 专注于攻击者 有些组织能够识别潜在的攻击者,并能根据攻击者的动机、目标或战术、技术和程序(TTPs)来确定他们所代表的威胁。

  • 专注于软件 如果一个组织开发软件,它可以考虑针对软件的潜在威胁。

It's common to pair threats with vulnerabilities to identify threats that can exploit assets and represent significant risks to the organization. An ultimate goal of threat modeling is to prioritize the potential threats against an organization's valuable assets. 


When attempting to inventory and categorize threats, it is often helpful to use a guide or reference. Microsoft developed a threat categorization scheme known as the STRIDE threat model. STRIDE is an acronym standing for the following: 

  • Spoofing: An attack with the goal of gaining access to a target system through the use of a falsified identity. When an attacker spoofs their identity as a valid or authorized entity, they are often able to bypass filters and blockades against unauthorized access.

  • Tampering: Any action resulting in unauthorized changes or manipulation of data, whether in transit or in storage. 

  • Information disclosure: The revelation or distribution of private, confidential, or controlled information to external or unauthorized entities.

  • Denial of service (DoS): An attack that attempts to prevent authorized use of a resource. This can be done through flaw exploitation, connection overloading, or traffic flooding.

  • Elevation of privilege: An attack where a limited user account is transformed into an account with greater privileges, powers, and access. 








Process for Attack Simulation and Threat Analysis (PASTA) is a seven-stage threat modeling methodology. PASTA is a risk-centric approach that aims at selecting or developing countermeasures in relation to the value of the assets to be protected. The following are the seven steps of PASTA: 

  • Stage1: Definition of the Objectives (DO) for the Analysis of Risks

  • Stage2: Definition of the Technical Scope (DTS) 

  • Stage3: Application Decomposition and Analysis (ADA) 

  • Stage4: Threat Analysis (TA) 

  • Stage5: Weakness and Vulnerability Analysis (WVA) 

  • Stage6: Attack Modeling & Simulation (AMS)

  • Stage7: Risk Analysis & Management (RAM) 


  • 第一阶段:定义风险分析的目标(DO)。

  • 第二阶段:技术范围的定义(DTS)

  • 第三阶段:应用分解和分析(ADA)

  • 第四阶段:威胁分析(TA)

  • 第五阶段:弱点和漏洞分析(WVA)

  • 第六阶段:攻击建模和模拟(AMS)

  • 第七阶段:风险分析和管理(RAM)

Each stage of PASTA has a specific list of objectives to achieve and deliverables to produce in order to complete the stage. For more information on PASTA, please see Risk Centric Threat Modeling: Process for Attack Simulation and Threat Analysis  (Wiley, 2015), by Tony Uceda Velez and Marco M. Morana.

PASTA的每个阶段都有一个具体的目标清单,以完成该阶段所需的目标和交付物。关于PASTA的更多信息,请参见《以风险为中心的威胁建模,攻击模拟和威胁分析过程》(Wiley2015),作者是Tony Uceda VelezMarco M. Morana

Visual, Agile, and Simple Threat (VAST) is a threat modeling concept that integrates threat and risk management into an Agile programming environment on a scalable basis (see Chapter 20, “Software Development Security,” regarding Agile). 


These are just a few in the vast array of threat modeling concepts and methodologies available from community groups, commercial entities, government agencies, and international associations. 


Be Alert for Individual Threats


Competition is often a key part of business growth, but overly adversarial competition can increase the threat level from individuals. In addition to criminal hackers and disgruntled employees, adversaries, contractors, employees, and even trusted partners can be a threat to an organization if relationships go sour. 


Potential threats to your business are broad and varied. A company faces threats from nature, technology, and people. Always consider the best and worst possible outcomes of your organization's activities, decisions, and interactions. Identifying threats is the first step toward designing defenses to help reduce or eliminate downtime, compromise, and loss. 




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