CWE-203 通过差异性导致的信息暴露

admin 2022年1月5日21:01:41CWE(弱点枚举)评论13 views6934字阅读23分6秒阅读模式

CWE-203 通过差异性导致的信息暴露

Information Exposure Through Discrepancy

结构: Simple

Abstraction: Base

状态: Incomplete

被利用可能性: unkown

基本描述

The product behaves differently or sends different responses in a way that exposes security-relevant information about the state of the product, such as whether a particular operation was successful or not.

相关缺陷

  • cwe_Nature: ChildOf cwe_CWE_ID: 200 cwe_View_ID: 1000 cwe_Ordinal: Primary

  • cwe_Nature: ChildOf cwe_CWE_ID: 200 cwe_View_ID: 699 cwe_Ordinal: Primary

  • cwe_Nature: ChildOf cwe_CWE_ID: 200 cwe_View_ID: 1003 cwe_Ordinal: Primary

适用平台

Language: {'cwe_Class': 'Language-Independent', 'cwe_Prevalence': 'Undetermined'}

常见的影响

范围 影响 注释
['Confidentiality', 'Access Control'] ['Read Application Data', 'Bypass Protection Mechanism'] An attacker can gain access to sensitive information about the system, including authentication information that may allow an attacker to gain access to the system.

可能的缓解方案

MIT-46 Architecture and Design

策略: Separation of Privilege

Compartmentalize the system to have "safe" areas where trust boundaries can be unambiguously drawn. Do not allow sensitive data to go outside of the trust boundary and always be careful when interfacing with a compartment outside of the safe area.
Ensure that appropriate compartmentalization is built into the system design and that the compartmentalization serves to allow for and further reinforce privilege separation functionality. Architects and designers should rely on the principle of least privilege to decide when it is appropriate to use and to drop system privileges.

MIT-39 Implementation

策略:

Ensure that error messages only contain minimal details that are useful to the intended audience, and nobody else. The messages need to strike the balance between being too cryptic and not being cryptic enough. They should not necessarily reveal the methods that were used to determine the error. Such detailed information can be used to refine the original attack to increase the chances of success.
If errors must be tracked in some detail, capture them in log messages - but consider what could occur if the log messages can be viewed by attackers. Avoid recording highly sensitive information such as passwords in any form. Avoid inconsistent messaging that might accidentally tip off an attacker about internal state, such as whether a username is valid or not.

示例代码

The following code checks validity of the supplied username and password and notifies the user of a successful or failed login.

bad Perl

my $username=param('username');
my $password=param('password');

if (IsValidUsername($username) == 1)
{

if (IsValidPassword($username, $password) == 1)
{

print "Login Successful";

}
else
{

print "Login Failed - incorrect password";

}

}
else
{

print "Login Failed - unknown username";

}

In the above code, there are different messages for when an incorrect username is supplied, versus when the username is correct but the password is wrong. This difference enables a potential attacker to understand the state of the login function, and could allow an attacker to discover a valid username by trying different values until the incorrect password message is returned. In essence, this makes it easier for an attacker to obtain half of the necessary authentication credentials.

While this type of information may be helpful to a user, it is also useful to a potential attacker. In the above example, the message for both failed cases should be the same, such as:

result

"Login Failed - incorrect username or password"

分析过的案例

标识 说明 链接
CVE-2002-2094 This, and others, use ".." attacks and monitor error responses, so there is overlap with directory traversal. https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2002-2094
CVE-2001-1483 Enumeration of valid usernames based on inconsistent responses https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2001-1483
CVE-2001-1528 Account number enumeration via inconsistent responses. https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2001-1528
CVE-2004-2150 User enumeration via discrepancies in error messages. https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2004-2150
CVE-2005-1650 User enumeration via discrepancies in error messages. https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2005-1650
CVE-2004-0294 Bulletin Board displays different error messages when a user exists or not, which makes it easier for remote attackers to identify valid users and conduct a brute force password guessing attack. https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2004-0294
CVE-2004-0243 Operating System, when direct remote login is disabled, displays a different message if the password is correct, which allows remote attackers to guess the password via brute force methods. https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2004-0243
CVE-2002-0514 Product allows remote attackers to determine if a port is being filtered because the response packet TTL is different than the default TTL. https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2002-0514
CVE-2002-0515 Product sets a different TTL when a port is being filtered than when it is not being filtered, which allows remote attackers to identify filtered ports by comparing TTLs. https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2002-0515
CVE-2001-1387 Product may generate different responses than specified by the administrator, possibly leading to an information leak. https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2001-1387
CVE-2004-0778 Version control system allows remote attackers to determine the existence of arbitrary files and directories via the -X command for an alternate history file, which causes different error messages to be returned. https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2004-0778
CVE-2004-1428 FTP server generates an error message if the user name does not exist instead of prompting for a password, which allows remote attackers to determine valid usernames. https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2004-1428
CVE-2003-0078 SSL implementation does not perform a MAC computation if an incorrect block cipher padding is used, which causes an information leak (timing discrepancy) that may make it easier to launch cryptographic attacks that rely on distinguishing between padding and MAC verification errors, possibly leading to extraction of the original plaintext, aka the "Vaudenay timing attack." https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2003-0078
CVE-2000-1117 Virtual machine allows malicious web site operators to determine the existence of files on the client by measuring delays in the execution of the getSystemResource method. https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2000-1117
CVE-2003-0637 Product uses a shorter timeout for a non-existent user than a valid user, which makes it easier for remote attackers to guess usernames and conduct brute force password guessing. https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2003-0637
CVE-2003-0190 Product immediately sends an error message when a user does not exist, which allows remote attackers to determine valid usernames via a timing attack. https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2003-0190
CVE-2004-1602 FTP server responds in a different amount of time when a given username exists, which allows remote attackers to identify valid usernames by timing the server response. https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2004-1602
CVE-2005-0918 Browser allows remote attackers to determine the existence of arbitrary files by setting the src property to the target filename and using Javascript to determine if the web page immediately stops loading, which indicates whether the file exists or not. https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2005-0918

分类映射

映射的分类名 ImNode ID Fit Mapped Node Name
PLOVER Discrepancy Information Leaks
OWASP Top Ten 2007 A6 CWE More Specific Information Leakage and Improper Error Handling
OWASP Top Ten 2004 A7 CWE More Specific Improper Error Handling

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