CWE-390 未有动作错误条件的检测

admin 2022年1月5日20:58:51CWE(弱点枚举)评论17 views7139字阅读23分47秒阅读模式

CWE-390 未有动作错误条件的检测

Detection of Error Condition Without Action

结构: Simple

Abstraction: Class

状态: Draft

被利用可能性: Medium

基本描述

The software detects a specific error, but takes no actions to handle the error.

相关缺陷

  • cwe_Nature: ChildOf cwe_CWE_ID: 755 cwe_View_ID: 1000 cwe_Ordinal: Primary

  • cwe_Nature: CanPrecede cwe_CWE_ID: 401 cwe_View_ID: 1000

适用平台

Language: {'cwe_Class': 'Language-Independent', 'cwe_Prevalence': 'Undetermined'}

常见的影响

范围 影响 注释
['Integrity', 'Other'] ['Varies by Context', 'Unexpected State', 'Alter Execution Logic'] An attacker could utilize an ignored error condition to place the system in an unexpected state that could lead to the execution of unintended logic and could cause other unintended behavior.

可能的缓解方案

Implementation

策略:

Properly handle each exception. This is the recommended solution. Ensure that all exceptions are handled in such a way that you can be sure of the state of your system at any given moment.

Implementation

策略:

If a function returns an error, it is important to either fix the problem and try again, alert the user that an error has happened and let the program continue, or alert the user and close and cleanup the program.

Testing

策略:

Subject the software to extensive testing to discover some of the possible instances of where/how errors or return values are not handled. Consider testing techniques such as ad hoc, equivalence partitioning, robustness and fault tolerance, mutation, and fuzzing.

示例代码

The following example attempts to allocate memory for a character. After the call to malloc, an if statement is used to check whether the malloc function failed.

bad C

foo=malloc(sizeof(char)); //the next line checks to see if malloc failed
if (foo==NULL) {

//We do nothing so we just ignore the error.

}

The conditional successfully detects a NULL return value from malloc indicating a failure, however it does not do anything to handle the problem. Unhandled errors may have unexpected results and may cause the program to crash or terminate.

Instead, the if block should contain statements that either attempt to fix the problem or notify the user that an error has occurred and continue processing or perform some cleanup and gracefully terminate the program. The following example notifies the user that the malloc function did not allocate the required memory resources and returns an error code.

good C

foo=malloc(sizeof(char)); //the next line checks to see if malloc failed
if (foo==NULL) {

printf("Malloc failed to allocate memory resources");
return -1;

}

In the following C++ example the method readFile() will read the file whose name is provided in the input parameter and will return the contents of the file in char string. The method calls open() and read() may result in errors if the file does not exist or does not contain any data to read. These errors will be thrown when the is_open() method and good() method indicate errors opening or reading the file. However, these errors are not handled within the catch statement. Catch statements that do not perform any processing will have unexpected results. In this case an empty char string will be returned, and the file will not be properly closed.

bad C++

char readfile (char filename) {

try {

// open input file
ifstream infile;
infile.open(filename);

if (!infile.is_open()) {

throw "Unable to open file " + filename;

}

// get length of file
infile.seekg (0, ios::end);
int length = infile.tellg();
infile.seekg (0, ios::beg);

// allocate memory
char buffer = new char [length];

// read data from file
infile.read (buffer,length);

if (!infile.good()) {

throw "Unable to read from file " + filename;

}

infile.close();

return buffer;

}
catch (...) {

/ bug: insert code to handle this later */

}

}

The catch statement should contain statements that either attempt to fix the problem or notify the user that an error has occurred and continue processing or perform some cleanup and gracefully terminate the program. The following C++ example contains two catch statements. The first of these will catch a specific error thrown within the try block, and the second catch statement will catch all other errors from within the catch block. Both catch statements will notify the user that an error has occurred, close the file, and rethrow to the block that called the readFile() method for further handling or possible termination of the program.

good C++

char readFile (char filename) {

try {

// open input file
ifstream infile;
infile.open(filename);

if (!infile.is_open()) {

throw "Unable to open file " + filename;

}

// get length of file
infile.seekg (0, ios::end);
int length = infile.tellg();
infile.seekg (0, ios::beg);

// allocate memory
char buffer = new char [length];

// read data from file
infile.read (buffer,length);

if (!infile.good()) {

throw "Unable to read from file " + filename;

}
infile.close();

return buffer;

}
catch (char str) {

printf("Error: %s n", str);
infile.close();
throw str;

}
catch (...) {

printf("Error occurred trying to read from file n");
infile.close();
throw;

}

}

In the following Java example the method readFile will read the file whose name is provided in the input parameter and will return the contents of the file in a String object. The constructor of the FileReader object and the read method call may throw exceptions and therefore must be within a try/catch block. While the catch statement in this example will catch thrown exceptions in order for the method to compile, no processing is performed to handle the thrown exceptions. Catch statements that do not perform any processing will have unexpected results. In this case, this will result in the return of a null String.

bad Java

public String readFile(String filename) {

String retString = null;
try {

// initialize File and FileReader objects
File file = new File(filename);
FileReader fr = new FileReader(file);

// initialize character buffer
long fLen = file.length();
char[] cBuf = new char[(int) fLen];

// read data from file
int iRead = fr.read(cBuf, 0, (int) fLen);

// close file
fr.close();

retString = new String(cBuf);

} catch (Exception ex) {

/ do nothing, but catch so it'll compile... /

}
return retString;

}

The catch statement should contain statements that either attempt to fix the problem, notify the user that an exception has been raised and continue processing, or perform some cleanup and gracefully terminate the program. The following Java example contains three catch statements. The first of these will catch the FileNotFoundException that may be thrown by the FileReader constructor called within the try/catch block. The second catch statement will catch the IOException that may be thrown by the read method called within the try/catch block. The third catch statement will catch all other exceptions thrown within the try block. For all catch statements the user is notified that the exception has been thrown and the exception is rethrown to the block that called the readFile() method for further processing or possible termination of the program. Note that with Java it is usually good practice to use the getMessage() method of the exception class to provide more information to the user about the exception raised.

good Java

public String readFile(String filename) throws FileNotFoundException, IOException, Exception {

String retString = null;
try {

// initialize File and FileReader objects
File file = new File(filename);
FileReader fr = new FileReader(file);

// initialize character buffer
long fLen = file.length();
char [] cBuf = new char[(int) fLen];

// read data from file
int iRead = fr.read(cBuf, 0, (int) fLen);

// close file
fr.close();

retString = new String(cBuf);

} catch (FileNotFoundException ex) {

System.err.println ("Error: FileNotFoundException opening the input file: " + filename );
System.err.println ("" + ex.getMessage() );
throw new FileNotFoundException(ex.getMessage());

} catch (IOException ex) {

System.err.println("Error: IOException reading the input file.n" + ex.getMessage() );
throw new IOException(ex);

} catch (Exception ex) {

System.err.println("Error: Exception reading the input file.n" + ex.getMessage() );
throw new Exception(ex);

}
return retString;

}

分类映射

映射的分类名 ImNode ID Fit Mapped Node Name
CLASP Improper error handling
The CERT Oracle Secure Coding Standard for Java (2011) ERR00-J Do not suppress or ignore checked exceptions
Software Fault Patterns SFP4 Unchecked Status Condition

引用

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  • 本文由 发表于 2022年1月5日20:58:51
  • 转载请保留本文链接(CN-SEC中文网:感谢原作者辛苦付出):
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